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Characterization of Nanoscale Dielectrics or What characterizes dielectrics needed for the 22 nm node?. O. Engstrom 1 , M. Lemme 2 , P.Hurley 3 and S.Hall 4 1 Chalmers University of Technology 2 AMO GmbH 3 Tyndal Laboratories 4 Liverpool University. Questions at issue.

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slide1

Characterization of Nanoscale DielectricsorWhat characterizes dielectrics needed for the 22 nm node?

O. Engstrom1, M. Lemme2, P.Hurley3 and S.Hall4

1Chalmers University of Technology

2AMO GmbH

3Tyndal Laboratories

4Liverpool University

questions at issue
Questions at issue
  • How long can HfO2 be used?
  • How to find the road to higher-k, higher offset dielectrics?
  • Problems in connection with bulk and SOI
high k metal gate

High-k Metal Gate

Ni

HfO2

Si

Tyndall : e-beam evaporation

Liverpool: MoCVD, ALD

Chalmers: Reactive sputtering, ALD

AMO: MBE & metallization

AMO, Liverpool, Chalmers and Tyndall

high k metal gate1
High-k Metal Gate

(100)Si/SiOx(0.6nm)/HfO2(3.5nm)/Ni

SINANO Exchange: Tyndall  Chalmers Nov 2006 : Study of Bulk Defects in HfO2

JV Dispersion:

65 sites 55umx55um

Tox (max/min) = 42.9Å/41.4Å =0.15Å

100 si sio x hfo 2 tin system interface defects origin and annealing
(100)Si/SiOx/HfO2/TiN SystemInterface defects: Origin and Annealing
  • P.K.Hurley, K. Cherkaoui, and A.W. Groenland “Electrically active interface defects in the
  • (100)Si/SiOx/HfO2/TiN system: Origin, Instabilities and Passivation”,
  • Invited paper: ECS, Cancun, Mexico, October 2006
  • SINANO Acknowledged

p Si

n Si

HfO2 by ALD

hfo 2 tin n channel mosfets mobility degradation interface states
HfO2/TiN n channel MOSFETsMobility degradation: Interface States

HfO2 by ALD

ICP(1 MHz) -ICP (1 kHz)

Dit = 4.0 x 1010 cm-2

Interface states do not limit mobility (DIT <5.0 x 1010 cm-2)

hfo 2 tin n channel mosfets mobility degradation

100000

10000

/Vs]

2

msr

[cm

mc

mph

o

m

1000

mo (fitting)

mo (measured)

100

0

100

200

300

400

Temperature [K]

HfO2/TiN n channel MOSFETsMobility degradation

Presented at EMRS Symposium L, 2006:

SINANO acknowledged

Remote phonon scattering term limits mobility above temperature 50 K.

Weber et al, Proc. ESSDERC, 2005, p. 379

slide9

Oxide defects, ALD HfO2

Gavartin et al, JAP 97, 053704 (2005)

Johansson et al, subm. JAP

slide10

Hafnium silicate

Absorption constant [arb. units]

Spectroscopic ellipsometry

Mitrovic et al, manuscript submitted

slide11

The road to higher k

and higher band offset values

slide12

Scaling problem of the bulk MOSFET:

Shorter channel length

requires increased doping under the channel

whichrequires higher capacitive coupling

between gate and channel

which in turn requires thinner gate insulator material

k f z
k=f(<Z>)

Clausius-Mosotti

O. Engström, B. Raeissi, S. Hall, O. Buiu, M.C. Lemme, H.D.B. Gottlob, P.K. Hurley, K. Cherkaoui, Proc. ULIS, 2006, subm. To SSE

k f z1
k=f(<Z>)

O. Engström, B. Raeissi, S. Hall, O. Buiu, M.C. Lemme, H.D.B. Gottlob, P.K. Hurley, K. Cherkaoui, Proc. ULIS, 2006, subm. To SSE

k f z2
k=f(<Z>)

O. Engström, B. Raeissi, S. Hall, O. Buiu, M.C. Lemme, H.D.B. Gottlob, P.K. Hurley, K. Cherkaoui, Proc. ULIS, 2006, subm. To SSE

offset value f heat of formation
Offset value = f(heat of formation)

O. Engström, B. Raeissi, S. Hall, O. Buiu, M.C. Lemme, H.D.B. Gottlob, P.K. Hurley, K. Cherkaoui, Proc. ULIS, 2006, subm. To SSE

the 22 nm node border
The 22 nm node border

Borders for the 22 nm

LSTP node

O. Engström, B. Raeissi, S. Hall, O. Buiu, M.C. Lemme, H.D.B. Gottlob, P.K. Hurley, K. Cherkaoui, Proc. ULIS, 2006, subm. To SSE

slide22

Epitaxial Gd2O3 with NiSi gate electrodes

  • ITRS targets for 2012
  • EOT given here for a quantum mechanical correction of CET by 0.3 nm

H.D.B. Gottlob et al., IEEE EDL, Vol. 27, No. 10, October, 2006

slide23

SOI FD MOSFET

Single gate

x

Double gate

Lg

From Risch, SSE 50, 527 (2006)

”natural length”

slide24

g

10

5

3

g = 5

(b)

(a)

Source

Drain

Source

Drain

x [nm]

x [nm]

Conduction band shape for an SOI FD DG MSFET

Ec [eV]

slide25

Silicon thickness for FD DG SOI MOSFETs

in the 22 nm LSTP node

La2O3

tSi [nm]

Gd2O3

HfO2

SiO2

Lg/l

slide26

Phonon and interface scattering in thin silicon layers

Phonon modes

Mobility

Sotomayor-Torres et al, Phys. Stat. Sol. 1, 2609 (2004)

Uchida & Takagi, APL 82, 2916 (2003)

Theory

Donetti et al, JAP, 100, 013701 (2006)

summary
Summary

High-k for the 22 nm LSTP node

  • Bulk:
    • So far only La2O3, LaAlO3 seem to pass
  • SOI:
    • SiO2 cannot be used neither for DG nor GAA
    • Probably HfO2 can be used for GAA
    • For DG La2O3 seems to be necessary,

but Gd2O3 may be an alternative

Brask-lapp:

Things may change!