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B iology I s the S tudy of L ife. Living things, from simple cells to complex multicellular organisms, share common features and characteristics. C haracteristics of L ife. O rganization M etabolism A cquisition and U tilization of E nergy

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b iology i s the s tudy of l ife
Biology Is the Study of Life

Living things,

from simple

cells to




share common

features and


c haracteristics of l ife
Characteristics of Life
  • Organization
  • Metabolism
  • Acquisition and Utilization of Energy
  • Acquisition and Utilization of Matter
  • Homeostasis
  • Response to Environmental Stimuli
  • Evolution
  • Genetic Transmission
  • Reproduction
  • Development, Growth, Maintenance, Repair
t he u nity i n l ife s d iversity t heme is e volution
The Unity In Life’s Diversity Theme is Evolution

The vast diversity of life forms on the planet have evolved to their present form from a common ancestor.

Nature selects successful organisms who survive to reproductive maturity, therefore, differential reproduction ensures survival of the fittest, best adapted species.

Living things are interactive through the transfer of energy and interconnected through cycles of matter.

o rganizational h i erarchy
  • Atoms to molecules
  • Molecules to macromolecules
  • Macromolecules to organelles
  • Organelles to cell (unicellular or multicellular organisms)
  • Cells (multicellular) to tissue
  • Tissues to organs
  • Organs to systems
  • Systems to organisms
  • Like organisms compose a species
  • Members of the same species compose a population
  • Different population compose a community
  • Communities compose ecosystems
  • Ecosystems compose biomes
  • Biomes compose the biosphere
o rganisms m aintain o rder and o rganization
Organisms Maintain Order and Organization
  • According to the Second Law of Thermodynamics, Entropy, which is disorder, is always increasing in the universe.
  • Living organisms use energy and macromolecules from food to maintain organization through metabolism.
e nergy f low and c ycles of m atter f orm i nteracting and i nterconnecting w ebs
Energy Flow and Cycles of MatterForm Interacting and Interconnecting Webs
  • Producerstransform energy and use it to chemically bond molecules to produce food.
  • Both producers and consumers transform the energy in food and use it and the molecules in food to maintain organization and do work.

-Decomposers recycle matter

  • Matter is recycled, energy is not.
  • Metabolism- sum total of all of the chemical reactions that maintain an organism functioning.
h omeostasis m aintenance of o ptimal r anges and c onditions
Homeostasis Maintenance of Optimal Ranges and Conditions
  • Internal consistency of temperature, pH, concentrations of sugars, electrolytes, etc.
  • Along with optimal conditions, for metabolic reactions to occur the following are necessary:
      • Enzymes
      • Energy
r esponse to e nvironmental s timuli
Response to Environmental Stimuli
  • Response to internal environmental stimuli by feedback loops to maintain homeostasis

-short range responses are mediated by the nervous system.

-long range responses are mediated by the endocrine system.

  • Response to external environmental stimuli is also necessary to maintain homeostasis, as well as for survival.
  • Nature selects the fittest for survival “Evolution”
  • Change in pigmentation to camouflage ensures survival.
  • Organisms must respond to environmental stimuli in order to survive, as well as to maintain internal homeostatic balance.
  • Adaptations are features that allow organisms to survive in their environment.
r eproduction and g enetic t ransmission
Reproduction and Genetic Transmission
  • Genetic transmission ensures the inheritance of traits that are successful for survival.
  • Inheritance, from parent to offspring, through genes, which are contained on the DNA of the chromosomes and in some cases the mitochondria. In some viruses the genes are on the RNA.
  • Expression of genetic traits provide instructions for development, growth, metabolism, etc.
  • Members of a species have the same kind and number of chromosomes
d evelopment g rowth m aintenance and r epair
Development, Growth, Maintenance, and Repair
  • Living organisms must put their genes into action through the development, growth, and maintenance of their body’s organ systems to fulfill their roles as successful members of their species, which is to reproduce effectively.

The unique


of life are a common theme in both

simple organisms and complex organisms, whether unicellular or multicellular, whether prokaryotic or eukaryotic.