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CMIS 520 Managing Technology. Jo Ellen Moore, Ph.D. Models of Information Management. IS/IT Responsibilities Strategy CIO working with top mgmt team Infrastructure IS Dept Application of Technology to Business Processes User Areas. Models of Information Management. The Models

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cmis 520 managing technology

CMIS 520Managing Technology

Jo Ellen Moore, Ph.D.

models of information management
Models of Information Management
  • IS/IT Responsibilities
    • Strategy
      • CIO working with top mgmt team
    • Infrastructure
      • IS Dept
    • Application of Technology to Business Processes
      • User Areas
models of information management3
Models of Information Management
  • The Models
    • Nolan’s 6 Stages of IS Development
    • McFarlan & McKinney’s Strategic Grid
    • Gibson & Hammer’s Benefit / Beneficiary Matrix
    • Karten’s 2 Stages of EUC
nolan s 6 stage model
Nolan’s 6 Stage Model
  • Stage 1 - Initiation
    • Application development usually initiated by IS folks
    • Applications developed to reduce costs
    • Little to no user involvement
    • Lax IS planning and control
nolan s 6 stage model5
Nolan’s 6 Stage Model
  • Stage 2 - Contagion
    • Period of “unbridled growth”
    • IS Dept requests nearly always approved
nolan s 6 stage model6
Nolan’s 6 Stage Model
  • Stage 3 - Control
    • Missed deadlines, cost overruns, unmet expectations…
    • IS managers asked to relate IS expenditures to business objectives
    • Formalized planning and control
nolan s 6 stage model7
Nolan’s 6 Stage Model
  • Stage 4 - Integration
    • New technologies -- databases, user languages, microcomputers, spreadsheet package
    • Begin move toward integrating applications and data files
    • Users have tools to circumvent backlog of IS Dept
    • IS Dept takes on more of a service role in organization
nolan s 6 stage model8
Nolan’s 6 Stage Model
  • Stage 5 - Data Administration
    • Toward “shared data”
    • Few organizations today have moved past this stage
nolan s 6 stage model9
Nolan’s 6 Stage Model
  • Stage 6 - Maturity
    • Integrated applications mirror the “information flows” in the organization
    • Information resources are woven into the overall strategy of the organization
the strategic grid
The Strategic Grid
  • Classify organizations by:
    • Strategic impact of existing applications
    • Strategic impact of applications under development
the strategic grid11
The Strategic Grid

Strategic Impact of Existing Applications

L o w

H i

H

i

TURN-

AROUND

Strategic Impact of Applications Under Development

STRATEGIC

L

o

w

SUPPORT

FACTORY

the strategic grid12
The Strategic Grid
  • SUPPORT Category
    • Primarily transaction-based rather than strategic applications
    • Applications developed to reduce costs
the strategic grid13
The Strategic Grid
  • TURNAROUND Category
    • Have begun to develop strategic systems
    • Move from Support because of:
      • new technology
      • industry dynamics
      • pressure from user areas
the strategic grid14
The Strategic Grid
  • FACTORY Category
    • Have implemented applications with definite strategic impact
    • But no new systems in the development portfolio are strategic
the strategic grid15
The Strategic Grid
  • STRATEGIC Category
    • IS partners with senior, process, and functional managers in formulating strategy
    • IS reps on top mgmt team are expected to identify, recommend, implement technology to enhance strategic direction of company
benefit beneficiary matrix
Benefit/Beneficiary Matrix
  • Sort of integrates Nolan’s stages and the Strategic Grid…
  • Matrix to categorize an org’s use or need for information technology
  • Dimensions of matrix:
    • Who are the beneficiaries?
    • What are the benefits?
benefit beneficiary matrix17
Benefit/Beneficiary Matrix
  • DOMAIN 1
    • Beneficiary: Functional Units
    • Benefits: Efficiency, Effectiveness
    • Example: Automated accounting functions
benefit beneficiary matrix18
Benefit/Beneficiary Matrix
  • DOMAIN 2
    • Beneficiary: Individuals
    • Benefit: Efficiency, Effectiveness
    • Examples: End-user tools, spreadsheets, word processing
benefit beneficiary matrix19
Benefit/Beneficiary Matrix
  • DOMAIN 3
    • Beneficiary: Enterprise
    • Benefits: Efficiency, Effectiveness, and Transformation
    • Example: Making customer’s order status available to him/her electronically
    • Business processes change/improve in utilization of new technology
karten s model of euc
Karten’s Model of EUC
  • End User Computing (EUC)
    • Development of computer applications by people who have direct need for them
    • EUC tools include:
      • spreadsheets
      • database developers
      • 4th generation languages
karten s model of euc21
Karten’s Model of EUC
  • STAGE 1
    • Promote EUC
    • Product and tools orientation
  • STAGE 2
    • Promote responsible EUC
    • Business orientation
karten s model of euc22
Karten’s Model of EUC
  • The Transition from Stage 1 to Stage 2:
    • Put the anxiety back in to EUC -- educate user on risks and responsibilities, and how to deal with them
    • EUC support personnel and users work together to apply technology to business needs
karten s model of euc23
Karten’s Model of EUC
  • Transition requires these “shifts in emphasis”:
    • From reactive services to proactive services
    • From quick-and-dirty individual support to in-depth functional and process support
    • From product orientation to business orientation
karten s model of euc24
Karten’s Model of EUC
  • (continued)
    • From supporting all needs to supporting high-payoff needs
    • From promoting computer literacy to promoting information literacy
    • From one-way relationship (users make requests of EUC support) to alliance of EUC support and user personnel
karten s model of euc25
Karten’s Model of EUC
  • Transition will require that EUC technical support personnel:
    • Allocate time to locating problems and opportunities amenable to EUC solutions
    • Look closely at business functions, processes, information flows
    • Serve as matchmaker between technological capabilities and business needs
karten s model of euc26
Karten’s Model of EUC
  • Transition will require that Users (“process” folks):
    • Learn to address risks and responsibilities of EUC
    • Progress from knowing how to use EUC tools to knowing how to put them to good use
    • Develop good working relationship with EUC technology experts
a common theme
A Common Theme...
  • All 4 models emphasize a need for integration of IT and business knowledge.