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Gender Stratification Chapter 11

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Gender Stratification Chapter 11. Learning Objectives. Contrast biological and sociological views of sex and gender. What is gender stratification? Do we live under a patriarchal ideology. How do we learn gender-roles. Describe gender differences in the world of work.

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learning objectives
Learning Objectives

Contrast biological and sociological views of sex and gender.

What is gender stratification?

Do we live under a patriarchal ideology.

How do we learn gender-roles.

Describe gender differences in the world of work.

Be aware of the effect of changes in gender roles in U.S. society.

sex and gender
Sex and Gender


  • The physical and biological differences between men and women.
    • Evident by physical distinctions in anatomical, chromosomal, hormonal, and physiological characteristics.


  • The social, psychological, and cultural attributes of masculinity and femininity that are based on the previous biological distinctions.
sex and gender1
Sex and Gender
  • Can you think of instances where the experiences of males and females are complicated by issues of sex and gender?
  • Gay, bisexual, pansexual
  • Intersexed individuals
    • What should you write on the birth certificate?
  • Transgender or transexual individuals
    • Does it have to exist in binary oppositions?
  • Transgender: a generic term for a person of one biological sex who displays characteristics of the opposite sex
  • Cross-dresser: a generic term for individuals who may dress or present themselves in the gender of the opposite sex
sex and gender2
Sex and Gender

Are differences in gender between males and females natural to human beings?

Biological views

Physiological differences

The Sociological View

How comfortable are you with the gender roles our society defines as appropriate for males and females?
    • Activities?
    • Professions?
    • Media portrayals
    • How about toys?
you know you want it
You know you want it!

Ok, now he was closeTried to domesticate youBut you're an animalBaby, it's in your natureJust let me liberate youYou don't need no papersThat man is not your makerAnd that's why I'm gon' take a

Good girl

Soo, exactly what blurred lines is the song referring to?

gender role socialization
Gender-Role Socialization

Lifelong process whereby people learn:





All considered appropriate to each sex according to their culture.

  • Gender role: the behaviors assigned to women and men in a society
    • Women are expected to nurture children.
  • Sex role: behaviors defined by biological constraints
    • Only women can nurse infants.
agents of socialization
Agents of Socialization

Agents of socialization are individuals and groups that influence development.

  • Family: parents and siblings
  • Race/ethnicity: different gender roles
  • Peers: important throughout the school years
  • Religion: emphasis of some on traditional roles
agents of socialization1
Agents of Socialization
  • Education: schools and teachers
  • Economy: occupation sex segregation—the concentration of men and women in different occupations
  • Mass media: movies, television, books, and magazines
consequences of traditional gender role socialization
Consequences of Traditional Gender Role Socialization
  • Less income: Women earn about 2/3 of what men earn.
  • Feminization of poverty: disproportionate percentage of those living in poverty constituted by women living alone and with their children
  • Higher risk for sexually transmitted infections for women
  • Negative body image for women
    • Sexism: an attitude, action, or institutional structure that subordinates or discriminates against individuals and groups because of their sex
  • Less marital satisfaction for women

Positive consequences for women:

  • Longer life expectancy: 81.4 (women) compared to 76.4 (men)
  • Stronger relationship focus
  • Keeping relationship on track
  • Bonding with children

Negative consequences for men:

  • Identity synonymous with occupation
  • Limited expression of emotions
  • Fear of intimacy
  • Custody disadvantages
  • Shorter life expectancy

Positive consequences for men:

  • Freedom of movement
  • Greater pool of potential partners
  • Norm of initiating a relationship