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AVIATION MANAGEMENT COLLEGE SIR MOHD ‘ARIFF BIN ABDUL JALIL. Lecture 1: Human factor and flight physiology. AVIATION HUMAN FACTOR: AHF 2203. LEARNING OBJECTIVES & OUTCOMES. AVIATION HUMAN FACTOR: AHF 2203. By end of this session, you will be able to:

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lecture 1 human factor and flight physiology

AVIATION MANAGEMENT COLLEGE

SIR MOHD ‘ARIFF BIN ABDUL JALIL

Lecture 1: Human factor and flight physiology

AVIATION HUMAN FACTOR: AHF 2203

learning objectives outcomes
LEARNING OBJECTIVES & OUTCOMES

AVIATION HUMAN FACTOR: AHF 2203

  • By end of this session, you will be able to:
  • Acquire some basic understanding of Human Physiology
  • Able to identify the main function of body systems that have major role in human factors
  • Understand how the body and mind can be affected in flight as well as why they are affected in flight.
  • Be knowledgeable about the physiology of the body in the flight environment.
what is physiology
WHAT IS PHYSIOLOGY?

AVIATION HUMAN FACTOR: AHF 2203

  • The study of human systems' integrated functions and the processes by which they maintain the body functions.
  • In other words, the definition of physiology is:
    • The study of the functions of the body at the cellular level.
  • While flight physiology is how the body and mind work in the flying environment.
flight physiology
FLIGHT PHYSIOLOGY

AVIATION HUMAN FACTOR: AHF 2203

  • Flight physiology is how the body and mind work in the flying environment.
  • It includes
    • How our organs function
    • What keeps them from functioning in a abnormal environment
    • What the pilot can do to protect these functions before and during flight.
  • Flight physiology, therefore, is an integral part of human factors and safe flight, and it has a direct effect on human performance.
remember
REMEMBER ! ! ! !

AVIATION HUMAN FACTOR: AHF 2203

  • Knowing flight physiology, being aware of its effects on performance, and maintaining a high index of suspicion when performance becomes poor will continue to make everyone a better and safer pilot.
  • Suspicion = a feeling that something is possible

“Prevention is better than cure!”

why we need to learn physiology
Why we need to learn Physiology?

AVIATION HUMAN FACTOR: AHF 2203

  • Understanding how our organs function and how they keep from functioning in unfriendly environment.
  • Know how the body should work under ideal and controllable situations.
  • Raise the level of awareness.
  • Take action to avoid unsafe situation or be better prepared medically.
continue
Continue. . . .

AVIATION HUMAN FACTOR: AHF 2203

The Crew must be medically fit for flight!!!

the nervous system
The Nervous System

AVIATION HUMAN FACTOR: AHF 2203

  • 3 components:
    • Brain (Central Nervous System)
    • Spinal Cord
    • Peripheral

Nervous System

central nervous system brain
Central Nervous System (Brain)

AVIATION HUMAN FACTOR: AHF 2203

  • Core of the nervous system
  • Control all body function:
    • Mental
    • Mechanical
    • Physiological
  • Example:
    • Phone/computer system- Transmit electrical signal through WIRE.
    • Body- Transmit electrical and biochemical signal through NERVES.
slide12

AVIATION HUMAN FACTOR: AHF 2203

1st Part of Brain (Forebrain) (4 lobes)

  • Frontal lobes: thoughts, decisions, and judgments.
  • Parietal lobes: senses and send information for processing.
  • Temporal lobes: Speech center location and where the brain computes information (for written and spoken communications).
  • Occipital lobes: are where information from the eyes is processed.
slide13

Continue . . .

AVIATION HUMAN FACTOR: AHF 2203

  • 2nd part of brain (Midbrain): Hypothalamus, which produces hormones that affect temperature, growth, and other physiological activities.
  • 3rd part of brain (hindbrain): The center of regulation of many of the body’s basic functions, including breathing, blood pressure, heart rate, and many others.
spinal cord
Spinal Cord

AVIATION HUMAN FACTOR: AHF 2203

  • Function:
    • Transmit signal between brain and peripheral system.
peripheral nerves system
Peripheral Nerves System

AVIATION HUMAN FACTOR: AHF 2203

  • Function: Connect and transmit signal to branch of organ from brain.
  • Every part of body has its own nerve.
the respiratory system
The Respiratory System

AVIATION HUMAN FACTOR: AHF 2203

  • Function:
    • Exchange of gases between body and its tissue and the outside ambient air.
  • Purpose:
    • Add Oxygen(O2) and remove Carbon Dioxide (CO2).
slide17

The Respiratory System

AVIATION HUMAN FACTOR: AHF 2203

In the human body, two kinds of respiration take place.

(1)  External respiration.

- Occurs in the lung

- Air is inhaled and exhaled and gases transferred through the lungs

and into bloodstream.

(2)  Internal respiration.

  • Transport gases to and from body cells and tissues by the blood and
  • red blood.
external respiration
External Respiration
  • External respiration is about the mechanics of breathing, getting oxygen into the lungs and (used) air is expelled from the lungs in order to remove carbon dioxide from to body.
  • It is also about ensuring proper diffusion of Carbon Dioxide from the blood into the lungs
external respiration1
External Respiration

Blood Capillary

phases of respiration
Phases of Respiration

Breathing out

Breathing in

Active Phase INHALATION

Passive Phase EXHALATION

the lung
The Lung

Function of Lung: To transport of oxygen to the rest of body.

slide22
Human inhale oxygen (O2) from the outside air into the alveoli inside the lung. The lung exchange the oxygen O2 and carbon dioxide(CO2)

The process:

  • Air enters through the nose, mouth, trachea to the bronchial tree.
  • Distribute to the ALVEOLI (air sacs), where blood brought with OXYGEN molecules.
  • Amount of OXYGEN from Alveoli into red blood cells depends on pressure gradient.
internal respiration
Internal Respiration
  • The processes by which the gases in the air that has already been drawn into the lungs by external respiration are exchanged with gases in the blood/tissues so that carbon dioxide (CO2) is removed from the blood and replaced with oxygen (O2). 
continue1
Continue . . . .

AVIATION HUMAN FACTOR: AHF 2203

  • Diffussion:
    • gases moves from high pressurearea to lower pressure area.
    • Takes place as long as there is differential in pressure.
  • Gases moves =process of diffusion
the circulatory system
The Circulatory System

AVIATION HUMAN FACTOR: AHF 2203

  • Function:
    • Carries the blood, transport the oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and waste product.

*REMEMBER

  • Any change in oxygen levels to the cells immediately changes the performance of many organs, especially the brain
vascular system blood vessels
Vascular System (blood vessels)

The Circulatory System

AVIATION HUMAN FACTOR: AHF 2203

  • The link between the heart, lungs, brain, and other parts
  • Function: To maintain blood supply to all tissues of the body
the heart
The Heart

AVIATION HUMAN FACTOR: AHF 2203

The heart is an organ

that pumps the blood

through the circulatory

system by contraction

and dilation.

other body system
Other Body System

AVIATION HUMAN FACTOR: AHF 2203

  • Musculoskeletal System
    • Consist of bones (skeleton), tendons, muscles.
    • Body framework
    • Function:
      • Bones – provide support and protection
      • Muscles – contract and makes skeleton functional
  • Gastrointestinal (GI) system
    • Function: to digest and provide nutrients and fluids for metabolism into the tissue cells.
    • E.g. stomach
other body system1
Other Body System

AVIATION HUMAN FACTOR: AHF 2203

  • Metabolic System:
    • Function: convert resource into substance, chemicals, and energy.
    • E.g. kidney, liver, bladder
conclusion
Conclusion

AVIATION HUMAN FACTOR: AHF 2203

  • In order to understand how the physiology of flight can affect performance, we must have a basic understanding on how the body work.
key points
Key Points

AVIATION HUMAN FACTOR: AHF 2203

  • Definition of Physiology and Flight Physiology.
  • Importance of Flight Physiology.
  • Basic Concept of The Nervous System.
  • Basic Concept of The Respiratory System.
  • Basic Concept of The Circulatory System.
end of presentation
End of Presentation

AVIATION HUMAN FACTOR: AHF 2203

Q/A Session