john paul l oliveros md dpps l.
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mechanism and causality
Mechanism and causality
  • Physiology: is the study of how things work
  • Human physiology: individual molecular processes  processes that depend on many separate organs of the body
  • Mechanist view: “all phenomenon, no matter how complex, can be described in terms of physical and chemical laws”
  • Vitalism: “ a vital force, beyond physics and chemistry, is required to explain life”
  • Causality: to reduce a phenomenon to causally linked sequence of scientific events in order to explain it
cell theory
Cell theory
  • Cells:
    • Simplest structural units in which a multicellular organism can be dividedand still retain funtions and characteristics of life
    • Cell differentiation: the process of transforming an unspecialized cell into a specialized cell
    • Cells with similar specialization migrate to adhere with other cells to form multicellular structures
cells
Cells
  • 200 different kinds of cells in the body
  • Functional Classification
    • Muscle cells:
      • Generate mechanical forces that produces force and movement
    • Nerve cells:
      • Initiate and conduct electrical signals
  • Epithelial cells:
    • Selective secretions of ions and organic molecules
    • Located on the surfaces
    • Cover the body or organs
    • Line the walls of tubular or hollow structures
  • Connective Tissue cells
    • Connecting, anchoring, and supporting the structures of the body
    • Loose CT, fat cells, blood cells, bone cells
tissues
Tissues
  • Aggregate of a single type of cell
  • 4 classes
    • Muscle tissue
    • Nerve Tissue
    • Epithelial Tissue
    • Connective Tissue
  • Extracellular fluid
  • Extracellular matrix
    • Protein and mineral mixture specific for each tissue
      • Collagen fibers
      • Elastin fibers
      • Protein-carbohydratemixture
    • Functions:
      • Scafold for cellular attachments
      • Transmits information between cells ( chemical messengers)
organs and organ systems
Organs and Organ systems
  • Organs:
    • Composed of the 4 kinds of tissues arranged in various proportions and patterns
    • Functional Units:
      • Smaller similar subunits of an organ
      • Performs function of an organ
  • Organ systems:
    • A collection of organs that perform an overall function
    • 10 organ systems
internal environment
Internal Environment
  • Cells in our body are not in direct contact with the external environment
  • The overall effect of the activities of the organ systems is to create within the body an environment in which all cells can survive and function
  • Internal environment:
    • Fluid environment surrounding each cell
    • AKA extracellular fluid
homeostasis
Homeostasis
  • Homeostasis:
    • The relative constancy of the internal environment
    • Changes may occur but are small and kept within narrow ranges
  • Homeostatic control system:
    • a collection of body components that functions to keep a physical or chemical property of the internal environment relatively constant
    • 3 components :
      • Detection of the changes in the magnitude of the property
      • Relaying of information to appropriate sites
      • Commanding particular cells to change their funtion to restore property to its original value
body fluid compartments
Body-Fluid Compartments
  • Total Body Water (TBW): 60% of body weight
  • Intracellular Fluid: 2/3 of TBW
  • Extracellular fluid:1/3 of TBW
    • Interstitial fluid
      • 80% of ECF
      • Fluid in between and surrounding cells
    • Plasma:
      • 20% of ECF
      • Blood= plasma + suspended cells (blood cells)
body fluid compartments12
Body-Fluid Compartments
  • Compartmentalization:
    • Important principle in physiology
    • Achieved by barriers between compartments
    • Barriers regulate passage of substances between compartments
      • Cell membranes: between cells and interstial fluid
      • Blood vessels: between plasma and interstitial fluid