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Emphysema. Mitchell Muir Sarah Rutland Yvonne Kim. Muscular System. Organ system consisting of skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscles Smooth : movement within the body (organs) Skeletal : maintains posture

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Mitchell Muir

Sarah Rutland

Yvonne Kim

muscular system
Muscular System
  • Organ system consisting of skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscles
  • Smooth : movement within the body (organs)
  • Skeletal : maintains posture
    • Sarcomeres: within the muscle fibers contract causing a skeletal muscle to pull on a bone.
  • Cardiac : circulates blood throughout the body
  • A sarcomere is the basic unit of a muscle
  • Sarcomeres are composed of long, fibrous proteins that slide past each other when the muscles contract and relax.
muscular system diaphragm intercostal muscles
Muscular SystemDiaphragm& intercostal muscles
  • Diaphragm: a sheet of internal skeletal musclethat extends across the bottom of the rib cage
  • The diaphragm separates the thoracic cavity (heart, lungs & ribs) from the abdominal cavity and controls respiration.
  • Intercostal muscles:

thin muscles located between the ribs that assist the diaphram


respiratory system
Respiratory System
  • Airways, lungs, respiratory muscles
    • Alveoli
  • The main function of the respiratory system is gas exchange between oxygen and carbon dioxide
  • The alveolar membrane is the gas-exchange surface.
  • The blood brings CO2 from the rest of the body for release into the alveoli, and the oxygen in the alveoli is taken up by the blood in the alveolar blood vessels, to be transported to all the cells in the body
  • Disease of the lungs, in which the elastic in the walls of the alveoli is broken down by an imbalance in chemical production
    • neutrophil elastase (elevated by cigarette smoke)
    • alpha-1-antitrypsin (the activity varies due to genetics or reaction of a critical methionine residue with toxins including cigarette smoke).
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lmZZlkrSu5o
  • The loss of elasticity in the alveoli leaves the alveoli rigid, deformed, and unable to expand and deflate properly
  • leads to prolonged times for exhalation and an inability to take deep breaths
  • Smaller volume

of gas exchanged

per breath.

  • Shortness of Breath
  • Chronic Cough
  • Weezing
  • Fatigue/ Weakness
  • Anxiety/ Depression
  • Abnormally Rapid Heartbeat