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Brazil to 1930- Review. Over ½ land mass of South America Portuguese Speaking Empire 1822-1889 First Republic 1889-1930 Struggle for control between military and civilians Ruy Barbosa founds Civilista party but army rigs elections will not let Barbosa win

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Brazil to 1930- Review

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brazil to 1930 review
Brazil to 1930- Review
  • Over ½ land mass of South America
  • Portuguese Speaking
  • Empire 1822-1889
  • First Republic 1889-1930
  • Struggle for control between military and civilians
  • Ruy Barbosa founds Civilista party but army rigs elections will not let Barbosa win
  • 1910 Brazil produces 90% of world’s rubber by 1921 10%- British plantation rubber wins out
  • Coffee increasingly important 75% of world supply by 1900
  • Low price for coffee hurts Brazil during the Depression
  • 1924 Communist Party emerges under Luis Carlos Prestes- “the Prestes Column”
  • Dictatorship of Getulio Vargas 1930-1945
  • Present Brazilian president “Lula” one of current “leftist” presidents (along with Kirchner in Argentina and Chavez in Venezuela)
Empire 1822-1889

First Republic 1889-1930

Deodoro da Foseca 1889-1893

Floriano Peixoto 1893-1894

Ruy Barbosa

Prudente Jose de Moraes Barros 1894-1898

Canudos Revolt 1896-1898

Euclides da Cunha Os Sertoes

Baron of Rio Branco

Hermes da Fonseca 1910-1914

Wenceslau Braz Pereira 1914-1948

Epitacio da Silva Pessoa 1919-1922

brazil 2
Arthur da Silva Bernardes 1922-1926

Luis Carlos Prestes

(Prestes Column)

Washington Luiz Pereira da Souza 1926-1930

Getulio Vargas 1930-1945, 1950-1954

Labor Party

“o pai do povo”


Plinio Salgado

Estado Novo


Lourival Fontes

Oswaldo Aranha

National Democratic Union

Eduardo Gomes

Social Democratic Party

Eurico Dutra

“Queremos Getulio”

Adolpf Berle

Benjamin Vargas “O Beijo”

2nd Republic 1945-1964

Eurico Dutra 1946-1950

Getulio Vargas (again) 1950-1954 “o pai do povo”


Juscelino Kubitshek 1956-1960

New capital built at Brasilia

Janio Quadros 1961 “a new broom”

Joao “Jango” Goulart 1961-1964

Military Rule 1964-1985

Present President: Ignacio Lula da Silva “Lula”

uruguay review
Uruguay- Review
  • Early 20th Century defined by ideas of Jose Batlle y Ordonez 1903-1907, 1911-1915- Colorado (Liberal Party)
  • “Swiss System”, Welfare State, Socialism
  • Other major party is Blanco (Conservative) Party
  • Military which had previously stayed out of politics, takes over 1972-1985, excuse is threat of left wing urban guerilla movement- the Tupamaros- but military overstays that crisis
  • Democracy since 1989
Jose Batlle y Ordonez 1903-1907, 1911-1915

Colorado (Liberal) Party

Blanco (Conservative) Party


Gabriel Terra 1930-1938

Alfredo Baldomir 1938-1942

Juan Jose Amezaga 1943-1947

Jose Enrique Rodo Ariel 1900

Luis Alberto Herrera 1958-1959

Military Rule 1972-1985


Tabare Vasquez present President

paraguay review
Paraguay- Review
  • Latin American country in which Indian most integrated into national life 95% mestizo- bi-lingual population- Spanish/Guarani co-official languages
  • Isolated and dictator dominated in 19th century
  • Loses War of Triple Alliance 1864-1870 (vs. Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay)- Population reduced from 525,000 to 221,000 (only 28,000 men left!)
  • Beats Bolivia in Chaco War 1932-1935
  • Gen. Alfredo Sroessner dictatorship 1954-1989
  • Democracy since 1989
War of the Triple Alliance 1864-1870

Chaco War 1932-1935

Alfredo Stroessner 1954-1989

Carlos Rodriguez 1989

Former Catholic Bishop [Fernando Lugo] elected president beats Colorado Party (former long term ruling party) in 2008

“Noventa” 1890

La Union Civica de la Juventud

Leandro N. Alem


Union Civica Radical

Juarez Celman

Carlos Pellegrini 1890-1892


Bartolome Mitre

Julio A. Roca 1897-1904

Luis Saenz Pena 1892-1895

Hipolito Irigoyen “The Armadillo” 1916-1922, 1928-1930

argentina 2
Juan B. Justo

Lisandro de la Torre

Radical Party

Democratic Progressive Party

Luis Maria Drago “The Drago Doctrine”

Manuel Quintana 1904-1906

Figureroa Alcorta 1906-1910

Roque Saenz Pena 1910-1914

Saenz Pena Law 1912

“Gente Decente”

La Prensa

La Nacion

Argentina- 2
argentina 3
Marcelo T. Alverar 1922-1928


“Anti- personalistas”

Jose F. Uriburu 1930-1932

Ezequiel Paz

Augustin P. Justo 1932-1938

Carlos Saavedra Lamas

Chaco War

Roberto M. Ortiz 1938-1940

Ramon S. Castillo 1940-1943


Enrique Ruiz Guinazu

Argentina- 3
argentina 4

Accion Argentina

La Junta de la Victoria

Bishop Miguel de Andrea

Rio Conference 1942

Juan Peron 1944-1955, 1973-1974


General Arturo Rawson

General Pedro Ramirez 1943-1944


Martinez Zuviria “Hugo Vast:

Alfredo Palacios

Argentina- 4
argentina 5
Cordell Hull

Edelmiro Farrell 1944-1946

G.O.U. (Grupo de Oficiales Unidos)

Maria Eva Duarte (“Evita” Peron)


Nestor Kirchner

Eva Peron Foundation

Spruille Braden “o Braden o Peron”

George Messersmith


General PedroEugenio Aramburu 1955-1958

Arturo Frondizi 1958-1960

Argentina- 5
argentina 6
Dr. Arturo Frondizi 1963-1966

Gen. Juan Carlos Ongania 1966-1969

Gen. Alejandro Lanusse 1969-1973

“The Great National Accord”

Lopez Rega

Juan Peron 1973-1974

Isabel (“Isabelita”) Peron 1974-1976

Gen. Jorge Rafael Videla 1976-1981

Gen. Leopoldo Fortunato Galtieri 1981-1982

1982 Faulkland Islands (Malivinas) War

Carlos Saul Menem 1989-1999

Nester Kirchner

Argentina- 6
argentina review 1
Argentina- Review 1
  • Argentine economy #10 in the world in 1900
  • Encouraged immigration, especially from Italy, Western Europe
  • Hipolito Irigoyen “The Armadillo”- Radical Party- middle class, immigrants, 1916-1922, 1928-1930
  • Juan Peron 1946-1955, Military coup, Peron controls G.O.U., Rises to power with support of labor, “descamisados”
  • Influence of Eva Peron (“Evita”)- “Godmother of the poor”
argentina review 2
Argentina- Review 2
  • Juan Peron falls shortly after death of Eva- Argentine economy ruined, military takes over in 1955
  • Peron comes back as President 1973, dies 1974
  • Peron’s 3rd wife Isabel (“Isabelita”) V.P. becomes president in 1974, ousted by military 1976- “Isabelita” is no “Evita”
  • Brutal military rule 1976-1983
  • Army discredited by loss in the Fauklands (Malivinas) War 1982
  • Democracy returns 1983
  • Foreign Debt problems
  • Nester Kircher- current president- leftist ally of “Lula” in Brazil and (in a sense) Hugo Chavez in Venezuela rejects IMF rules, seeks independent (from U.S.) f. policy
  • Now Mrs. Kirchner (Christina Fernandez de Kirchner) is president
Juan Luis Sanfuentes 1915-1920

Arturo Alessandri Palma “The Lion of Tarapaca” 1920-1924, 1925, 1932-1938

Carlos Ibanez 1925-1931

Marmaduke Grove

Gustavo Ross

Pedro Aguirre Cerda 1938-1942

Juan Antonio Rios 1942-1946

Gabriel Gonzalez Videla 1946-1952

Pablo Neruda

Jorge Alessandri 1958-1964

chile 2
F.R.A.P. (Frente de Accion Popular), U.P. (Unidad Popular)

Salvador Allende 1970-1973

Eduardo Frei 1964-1970

Radomiro Tomic

1970 Election:

Allende 36.3%

Allesandri 34.9%

Tomic 27.8%

General Augusto Pinochet 1973-1990

Michelle Bachelet

Chile- 2
chile review
Chile- Review
  • Chile winner in War of the Pacific (late 19th century)
  • Mineral Wealth
  • Personalismo: Arturo Alessandri Palma, “The Lion of Taracapa” 1920-1924, 1932-1938
  • 1970 Election- Salvador Allende (non-communist Marxist) elected president on his 3rd try with 36.3% of the vote (2 other major candidates)
  • Allende nationalizes U.S. copper and other companies
  • CIA works actively to undermine Allende (Nixon and Kissinger)
  • Augusto Pinochet 1973-1990- brutal military dictatorship
  • 1990 return democracy
  • Chilean economy prosperous
Chaco War 1932-1935

“Tin Barons” (Patino, Hochschild, Aramayo)

David Toro 1936-1937

German Busch 1937-1938

Enrique Penaranda 1940-1943

Catavi Massacre 1942

M.N.R. (Movimiento Revolucionaria Nacional)

Victor Paz Estenssoro 1952-1956, 1985-1989

Grialberto Villaroel 1943-1946

The National Revolution 1952-1964

Rene Barrientos 1964-1969

Ernesto “Che” Guevara (died 1967)

Juan Jose Torres 1969-1971

bolivia 2
Hugo Banzer 1971-1978

Luis Garcia Meza 1980-1982

Klaus Barbie

Evo Morales

Bolivia- 2
bolivia review
Bolivia- Review
  • Indian majority 55%+
  • Most volatile Latin American country= 200+ regime changes
  • Always trying to make up for loss of access to the sea due to the War of the Pacific
  • Chaco War with Paraguay 1932-1935 (Bolivia loses)
  • “Tin Barons”
  • Left wing reforms: M.N.R.- Victor Paz Estenssoro 1952-1956, 1985-1989
  • Current democracy still chaotic- Indian majority asserting itself on issue of oil pipeline
peru review
Peru- Review
  • 45% Indian
  • Early 20th century dictatorship: Augusto P. Leguia 1908-1912, 1919-1930
  • Left wing thought: Mariategui, Victor Raul Haya de la Torre, A.P.R.A.
  • Left Wing military dictatorship: Juan Velasco Alvardo 1968-1975, continued by General Morales 1975-1980
  • 1980 Return to democracy
  • 1985-1990 Alan Garcia- A.P.R.A. finally in presidency- repudiates foreign loans- economic disaster
  • Alberto Fujimori 1990-2000 uses dictatorial means- Sendero Luminosa defeated
  • Current President: Alejandro Toledo- full blooded Indian
Augusto P. Leguia 1908-1912, 1919-1930

Manuel Gonzalez Prada (lived 1848-1918)

Jose Mariategui, Seven Interpretive Essays on Peruvian Reality

Victor Raul Haya de la Torre

A.P.R.A. (Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana) 1924

Luis Sanchez Cerro 1930-1933

Oscar Benavides 1933-1939

Manuel Prado 1939-1945, 1956-1952

Jose Luis Bustamonte 1945-1948

peru 2
Manuel Odria 1948-1956

Fernando Belaunde Terry 1963-1968, 1980-1985

Juan Velasco Alvarado 1968-1968-1975

Francisco Morales Bermudez 1968-1975

Alan Garcia 1985-1990

Sendero Luminoso (Abimael Guzman)

Mario Vargas Llosa

Alberto Fujimori 1990-2000

Alejandro Toledo

Alan Garcia again

Peru- 2
ecuador review
Ecuador- Review
  • 25% Indian
  • Ecuador has lost over ½ of national territory since independence
  • Personalismo: Jose Maria Velasco Ibarra president 5 times: 1934-1935, 1944-1947, 1952-1956, 1960-1961, 1968-1972
  • Democracy: Galo Plaza 1948-1952
  • Military Rule: 1963-1968, 1972-1978
  • 1979 Return to democracy
  • Recent oil prosperity
  • Politics still volatile
Gabriel Garcia Moreno “The Theocratic State” 1860-1895

Eloy Alfaro 1895-1901, 1906-1911

Carlos Arroyo del Rio 1940-1944

Galapagos Islands

Jose Maria Velasco Ibarra 1934-1935, 1944-1947, 1952-1956, 1960-1961, 1968-1972 “Personalismo”

Galo Plaza, 1948-1952

Camilo Ponce Enriquez, 1956-1960

Carlos Julio Arosemena 1961-1963

Guillermo Rodriquez Lara 1972-1979

Rafael Correa

colombia review
Colombia- Review
  • General Respect for Democratic principles (Liberal/Conservative Parties)
  • Assassination of Leftist Liberal Jorge E. Gaitan in 1948 leads to…
  • “La Violencia” 1948-1966
  • Rojas Pinilla dictatorship 1953-1957
  • 1958 return to democracy
  • Corruptive influence of drug cartels (demand in U.S.)
  • Heavy current U.S. aid to fight drugs
Rafael Reyes 1904-1909

Enrique Olaya Herrera 1930-1934

Alfonso Lopez Pumarejo 1934-1938, 1942-1945

Alberto Lleras Camargo 1945-1946

Mariano Ospina Perez 1946-1950

Laureano Gomez 1950-1953

Jorge Eliecer Gaitan

“La Violencia”

Gustavo Rojas Pinilla 1953-1957

The National Front 1958-1974

Alfonso Lopez Michelson 1974-1978

Cesar Turbay Azola 1978-1982

colombia 2
Belisario Betancur 1982-1986

Union Patriotica 1986

Virgilio Barco 1986-1990

Cesar Gaviria Trujillo 1990-1994

Ernesto Samper Pizano 1994-1998

Andres Pastrana Arango 1998-2002

Alvaro Uribe Velez 2002-



Pablo Escobar

Colombia 2
Cipriano Castro 1899-1908

Juan Vicente Gomez 1908-1935

Eleazar Lopez Contreras 1935-1940

Isaias Medina Angarita 1940-1945

Accion Democratica (AD.)


Romulo Betancourt 1945-1947, 1959-1964

Romulo Gallegas 1948

Dona Barbara


Marcos Perez Jimenez 1952-1958

Raul Leoni 1964-1968

venezuela 2
Rafael Caldera 1969-1974, 1994-2000

Carlos Andres Perez 1974-1979, 1989-1994

Luis Herrera Campins


Jaime Lusinchi 1984-1989

Hugo Chavez

Venezuela 2
venezuela review
Venezuela- Review
  • Dominated by dictators in early 20th century (Worst example: Marcos Perez Jimenez 1952-1958)
  • Advent of Democracy: Accion Democratica (A.D.) Romulo Betancourt 1945-1947, 1959-1964
  • Dependence on oil revenue
  • Current President: Hugo Chavez- at odds with U.S.
Theodore Roosevelt

Hay-Pouncefote Treaty

Hay-Herran Treaty

Phillipe Baneau-Varilla

Hay-Baneau Varilla Treaty

Arnulfo Arias 1940-1968

Robert Chiari 1960

Omar Torrijos Herrera 1968-1981

Manuel Noriega 1981- 1989

Guillermo Endara 1984

Ernesto Perez Balladares

Martin Torrijos (son of Omar)

costa rica
Frederico A. Tinoco 1917

Rafeal Angel Calderon Guardia

Otilio Ulate

Jose “Pepe” Figueras 1953-1958

P.L.N. 1952

O.A.S (Organization of American States)

Mario Echandi 1958-1962

Francisco Orlich 1962-1966

Jose Joaquin Trejos 1966-1970

Oscar Arias Sanchez

Costa Rica
Jose Santos Zelayas 1893-1909

Thomas G. Dawson

Adolfo Diaz

“Dollar Imperialism”

Bryan-Chamorro Treaty 1916

Juan B. Sacasa

Augusto Cesar Sandino

Jose Maria Moncada

Somoza “Dynasty” 1933-1979

Anastasio Somoza (“Tacho”) 1933-1956

Luis Somoza 1957-1963

Anastasio Somoza Debayle (“Tachito”) 1974

nicaragua 2
Rene Gutierrez Schick 1963


La Prensa Pedro Jaoquin Chamorro


Oliver North

Daniel Ortega 1985-1990

Violetta Barrios de Chamorro 1990-1996

Ruben Dario

Daniel Ortega again president

Nicaragua- 2
Tiburcio Carias Andino 1932-1948

Manuel Galvez 1948-1954

Dr. Ramon Villeda Morales 1957-1963

Osvaldo Lopez Arellan 1964-1968

The “Soccer War” 1969

Ricardo Maduro 2002-2008

Manuel Zelayas 2008 (signed pact w/Hugo Sanchez recently)

el salvador
The “14 Families”


Maximiliano Hernandez Martinez 1932-1944

Augustin Farabundo Marti


P.R.U.D. 1948

Christian Democratic Party

Jose Napoleon Duarte

A.R.E.N.A. Party

Alfredo Christiani

Roberto D’abussion

Armando Calderon Sol

Antonio Saca 2004

El Salvador
Manuel Estrada Cabrera 1898-1920

United Fruit Company

Jorge Ubico 1931-1944

Juan Jose Arevalo 1945-1950

Jacobo Arbenz 1950-1954

Agrarian Law of 1952

Carlos Castillo Armas 1954-1957

Miguel Ydigoras Fuentes 1958


Col. Enrique Peralta Azurdia 1963

Efrian Rios Mott 1982

Rigoberta Menchu

Oscar Berger 2004-



Vodun (Voodoo)

William Jennings Bryan

Roger L. Farnham

Jean Villaban Guillaume Sam

Dr. Rosolvo Bobo

Phillipe Sudre Dartiguenave

Admiral Caperton

Col. Littleton W.T. Waller

“Cacao Armies”

Gendarmerie d’Haiti

Smedley D. Butler

Ecole Militaire 1928

Corvee System

Charlemange Peralte

General John H. Russell

Louis Borno

Union Patriotique

Stenio Vicent 1930-1941



Elie Lescot 1941-1946

Dumarsias Estime 1946-1950

Col. Paul Magliore 1950-1956

Port au Prince

“The Elite”

Francois Duvalier “Papa Doc” 1957-1971

Tontons Macoutes “Bogeymen”

Baron Samedi

Jean Claude Duvalier “Baby Doc” 1971-1986

Jean Bertrand Aristide

Rene Garcia Preval

dominican republic

“Roosevelt Corollary”

Fabio Fiallo

Sumner Wells

Horacio Vasquez 1924-1930

Rafael Leonidas Trujillo Molina 1930-1961

Juan Bosch

Jaoquin Balaguer 1966-1970, 1986-1995

Lionel Fernandez 2004-

Dominican Republic
Platt Amendment 1902

Tomas Estrada Palma 1902-1906

Charles Magoon 1906-1909

Jose Miguel Gomez 1909

Gerardo Machado 1925-1933



Sumner Wells

Carlos Manuel de Cespedes

“Sargents Revolt”

Fulgenio Batista 1934-1944, 1952-1959

Grau San Martin 1944-1948

Carlos Prio Socarrias 1948-1952

Moncado Barracks Attack 7/26/53

Fidel Castro 1959-?

Raul Castro

Ernesto “Che” Guevara