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1923-1930 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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1923-1930. Between 1923-1930 liberal policy applied in Turkey. Atatürk belives that Turkish economy can not develop without foreign capital and foreign aid. 1923-1930. During the war Turkey was devastated by the wars in the early 20 th century.

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1923 1930
1923-1930
  • Between 1923-1930 liberal policy applied in Turkey.
  • Atatürk belives that Turkish economy can not develop without foreign capital and foreign aid.
1923 19301
1923-1930
  • During the war Turkey was devastated by the wars in the early 20 th century.
  • Turkish economy was dependent on agriculture and industry was almost non-existent.
  • Agriculture sector was not mechanised.
  • Most manpower was used for the army, so no manpower to cultivate the land
  • There was inflation due to shortage goods,
  • 90% of industry was small scale, and agriculture was dominant and main
1923 19302
1923-1930
  • and main industial sector was handicraft industry.
  • Syria , Pallestine etc. all belonged to the Ottoman Empire
  • When Ottoman Empire disappeared, huge amount of debts to be paid by Turkey. After 1923, Turkish Republic paid debts was until 1954.
  • Because of debt, Turkish government allowed western countries to collect some tax from Turkish tobacco,liqeur etc.
  • Foreign companies running railways etc more pressure on Turkey ( 68 % of FDI invested on raiyways )
  • FDI ( 44% French, 34 % Germ, 17% Eng )
1923 19303
1923-1930
  • From 1923 to 1929, Turkey was not obliged to change customs duties as was in Ottoman Period. During this period , Turkey exported raw materials cotton, some agricultural products but imported manufactured textile
  • İzmir Congress on Turkish Economy and Lozan Treaty had a great impact on the economic policies during 1923-1930.
  • Lozan
  • İzmir Congress ( February 17, March 4, 1923)
lozan discussions
Lozan Discussions
  • During Lozan discussions five points were taken:
  • Abolition of capitulations and problem of foreign concessions
  • Customs tariff..
  • Settlement of Ottoman debts.
  • Occupation expenses and war repairations
  • Transfer of population.
  • Musul question.
zmir congress
İzmir Congress
  • 1100 delegations attended
  • “ We need economic victory besides military victory” economy receives the most emphasis Introductionary speech was done by Atatürk.
reperesentations
Reperesentations
  • Farmers: remove of Aşar tax,technical and financial support
  • Industrialists. İnvestment subsidies, extra import and export facilities
  • Workers. Better working condition, 8 hours of work and insurance
  • Traders : the most organized group, argued
  • the merits of free trade,
  • Emphasized the need for legal and institutional framework
zmir congress1
İzmir congress
  • All groups agreed on the implementation of the liberal economic policies though national identitiy and independence often emphasized.
  • Except the full acceptance of workers demands. There was an agreement to achieve the desires of other groups.
zmir congress2
İzmir Congress
  • Commercials were most organized. They demanded below:
  • Commercial banks and foreign exchange stock market should be regulated.
  • Friday must be holiday.
  • Regulation of mines and foresty must be reformed.
  • Government monopolies should be eliminated.
  • Establishment of chamber of commerce.
  • Regulating private corporations
slide10
INDUSTRIALISTS, They wanted below:
  • Protection of domestic industy with high tariffs
  • Tax exemptions for machinery and equipment imports
  • Education and training
  • Chamber of Industry
  • Industrial bank
zmir congress3
İzmir Congress
  • FARMERS:Aşar tax must be abolished ( 1925 )
  • Tobacco monopoly should be abolished.
  • in order to be organized and extended for agricultural credits, they demanded Agricultural Bank.(In 1932 Agricultural bank was established to buy some agricultural products.( Wheat,barley Grain SILOS idea was to create a shock to eliminate price changes.)
  • Social insurance
  • Some machines equipment
  • Trained agricultural workers.
zmir congress4
İzmir Congress
  • WORKERS
  • Working time per day must be restricted to 8 hours.
  • Off work should be paid.
  • Social security and unemployment security.
  • maternal leaves and wedding allowance
  • Newyl available jobs to be allocated for turks.
  • May 1must be declared as a Worker’s Holiday.