The Civil War • In 1912, China’s last emperor was forced to abdicate. • China was unified under a single government, but after its leader died, China fell into Civil War. • The Nationalists were led by Chiang Kai-shek. • The Communists were led by Mao Zedong
Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong
The Civil War • During World War II, both the Nationalists and the Communists fought against the Japanese, and worked to gain the loyalties of the Chinese people. • In 1949, the Communists, led by Mao, won the war. • The Nationalists retreated to Taiwan. They created the Republic of China. • The U.S. supported Taiwan, despite the fact martial law was maintained there for many years.
MAO’S CHINA • Only the Communist Party was allowed. • Private land was seized, and organized into large, government-run farms. • Factories were put under state control. • The government regulated food production and factory production • The government owned all housing, and decided where people would live.
Mao’s China • Religious worship was prohibited. • Food production was cut in order to increase industrial production. As a result, about 30 million Chinese died in famines in the 1960’s. • Freedom of speech and the press were virtually nonexistant.
The Cultural Revolution • In 1966, Mao called for a Cultural Revolution. He felt that not enough had been done to smash old ways of thinking, and that China’s progress had been too slow. • During the C.R., he established the Red Guard.
The Red Guard • To create the Red Guard, he shut down the schools and universities, and replaced education with indoctrination. • The Red Guards set out to destroy the Olds in China. • All those who disagreed with Mao were punished.
The Red Guard/Cultural Revolution • As a result of the Cultural Revolution, production ground to a halt, and schools closed. The economy was almost completely ruined. • The destruction was so great that Mao called for an end to the Cultural Revolution in 1969. He ordered the army to disband the Red Guards.
Deng Xiaoping • Mao died in 1976, and was replaced by Deng Xiaoping. • Deng made two major changes: • He instituted the One Child Policy. • He started the Four Modernizations. • The goals were to improve agriculture, science, industry and defense.
Deng said: • It doesn’t matter if a cat is black or white, as long as it catches mice!
Economic Change under Deng • China switched over from a focus on heavy industry (steel and machinery) to light industry (clothing and appliances). • He began rewarding managers and workers who improved production.
Special Economic Zones • These zones allow foreign investors to build factories and hire Chinese workers. • It began with four; now there are hundreds. • Special Economic Zones tend to be near the coasts, so the gap between rich and poor in the urban and rural areas has grown. • China’s regulations have not kept up with growth.
Tiananmen Square • Chinese citizens gathered in Tiananmen Square to demand democratic reforms. • June 3, 1989...when crowds failed to disperse... • Chinese government sends troops and tanks to Tiananmen Square. • Student protesters are brutally massacred.
Deng’s Legacy • Deng is remembered as a leader who modernized China’s economy. However, the black mark created by Tiananmen Square and other human rights violations cannot be forgotten. • Since his death in 1997, his successors have legalized private industry, but have retained strict human rights regulations. • China’s President Hu