Introducing Applied Linguistics Prodi Bahasa Inggris TA Genap February 2014
1. Defining Applied Linguistics Macro-Applied Linguistics: The study of language and linguistics in relation to practical problems. Micro-Applied Linguistics: The study of second and foreign language learning and teaching. (Jack Richards et al) 2. Applied linguistics is an interdisciplinary science
Policy: Role and position of a foreign language in general education, the entrance examination, studying abroad, getting a job, promotion, etc. • Needs and Objectives: Role and position of a foreign language in social, economic, cultural, military development, etc. • Approaches: behavioral, mechanistic, cognitive, humanistic, socio-psychological, etc. • Syllabus:English major, English minor, college English, ESP, one skill, four skills, etc.. Grammatical, situational, functional, notional, communicative, intensive,etc.
Materials: Content, choice of amount, criteria, and items, grading (grouping and sequence),etc. • Methods: grammar-translation, aural-lingual, aural-oral, audio-visual, counselling learning, the Silent Way, suggestopoedia, etc. • Aids: Software: pictures, photos, toys, tapes, disks, etc.; Hardware: magnetic boards, overhead projectors, tape records, video recorders, language labs, computers, multimedia labs, etc.
3. A systems approach to applied linguistics A. What is meant by a system? A system is an integral whole consisting of interrelated and interlocking components which have their own particular functions. In a system the members are, from a holistic viewpoint, not significantly connected with each other except with reference to the whole.
A B C D E Examples of ancient philosophy entertaining the idea of a systems approach include: Chinese traditional medicine and the water conservancy project initiated by Li Bing; the belief of Aristotles that the whole was larger than all its parts put together.The changes and development of these components are marked by what are known as "processes".
A systems approach to foreign language learning and teaching (FLLT) indicates that the whole process or the learner himself can be thought as a system in which there are a set of interrelated and interlocking variables, each has its part to play in the whole process. There are three important branches in the study of systems: (1) General systems theory-------theoretical biology (living organism) and philosophy (2) Systems engineering-------technology (3) Operational research--------applied mathematics
B. Closed vs open systemsA system is closed if no material enters or leaves it; it is open if there is import and export and, therefore, change of the components. Living systems are open systems, maintaining themselves in exchange of material with environment, and in continuous building up and breaking down of their components. So far physics and physical chemistry have been concerned almost with processes in closed reaction systems, leading to chemical equilibrium. But the cell and organism of a living system as a whole do not comprise a closed system, and are therefore never in equilibrium, but in a steady state. A steady state is a
time-independent state where the system remains constant as a whole and in its phases, though there is a continuous flow of the component materials. C. Organizational environments Open systems maintain themselves in exchange of material with environment; the environment is the set of all objects, a change in whose attributes affects the systems, and also of those objects whose attributes are changed by the behavior of the system. Therefore we can introduce a general proposition: that a comprehensive understanding of organizational behavior requires some knowledge of each member of the following set, where L indicates some potentially lawful connexion and the suffix 1 refers to the organization and the suffix 2 to the environment
L11 L12 L21 L22 L11 here refers to processes within the organization---- the area of internal interdependencies; L12 and L21 to exchanges between organization and environment and environment ---- the area of transactional interdependencies, from either direction; and L22 to processes through which parts of the environment become related to each other---- the area of interdependencies that belong within the environment itself Simon has demonstrated the relation between an organism and its environment by an example of a simple organism that has a single need----food----and is capable
of three kinds activity: resting, exploration, and food getting. The behavior of the organism can be described as: (a) it explores the surface at random. watching for a food heap; (b) when it sees one, it proceeds to it and eats (food getting); (c) if the total consumption of energy during the average time required, per meal, for exploration and food getting is less than the energy of the food consumed in the meal, it can spend the remainder of its time in resting. Simon has been able to show that the survival chances, from meal to meal, of this organism depend on four parameters: two that describe the organism and two the environment:
H = the storage capacity of the organism v = the range of vision of the organism p = the richness of the environment in food d = the richness of the environment Q = 1 - P = ( 1 - p )^( H - v )^d^v Q is the probability that it will not survive, and can be taken as the probability of failure in FLLT. The implications are that the richer the environment (exposure to the target language), the greater the storage capacity (perceptual powers), the wider the range of vision of the learner, the more successful our learner will be.
D. Different kinds of systems According to their developmental stages, systems can be divided into three kinds: inorganic, biological, and social systems.
Social systems are also known as artificial systems as distinguished from natural systems. • Natural systems are systems that are already in existence and composed of natural elements. • Artificial systems can be further divided into: (a) systems that are products of human processing of natural elements; (b) systems that are formed by human beings in the society; (c) scientific or theoretical systems that are products of human observations of nature and society.
To sum up what we have discussed, let’s quote from Grotjahn (1985): “From the viewpoint of cybernetics and system theory, however, interlanguages should indeed be considered as systems--systems which can be characterized as dynamic, non-recursive, stochastic, non-stationary, open, and goal-seeking. The interlanguage system is dynamic (not stable) because its attributes change with time. It is non-recursive because it involves feedback processes. It is stochastic because at least some of the processes follow probability
distribution. It is non-stationary because some of the probability distributions are dependent on the variable “time”. It is open because it depends on external, i.e. environmental variables such as linguistic input. Finally, it is goal-seeking because it tends to develop a characteristic final state.”
F. Modelling Simulation is a numerical technique for conducting experiments on a digital computer, which involves logical and mathematical relationship that interact to describe the behavior and structure of a complex real-world system over an extended period of time. The definition of simulation (modelling) describes systems (for which simulation methods are appropriate) as being complex, being subject to random fluctuations, and having relationships that are difficult if not impossible to analyze mathematically. By complexity we mean thatthe system is large in terms of number of variables, parameters, relationship, and events to which the system is responsive.
Formulation Real system Model Deduction Real Conclusion Model Conclusion
Modelling is an experimental method as well as a problem solving technique, and it is resort to when the systems under consideration cannot be analysed by direct and formal analytical methods. It can be used to: (1) To observe the complex interaction among the variables in a system, and to find out if possible, which variables play a more important role in the interaction. (2) To observe the effects of organizational and environmental changes on the variables of the system, and the reaction of variables to a newly introduced situation. (3) To observe the effects of a newly introduced variable on the other variables of a system, and to locate bottleneck problems in the operation of the system.
(4) To provide information about the serial progression of events which is decisive in the study of the stochastic process. (5) To provide means of instruction for the training of such basic skills as theory formulation, statistical analysis and decision making. 5. Applied linguistics is a process-oriented science The model of information processing provided by Robert Gagne can be applied to account for the process of FLLT:
The Information- processing Model (R.M. Gagne) Executive Control Expectancies E N V I R O N M E N T Response Generator Effectors attention (selective perception) encod- ing Long- term Memory Sensory Register Short-term Memory Receptors *10 to 20 Ss *7 units *rehearsal or forgotten *1/4 of second *lost *meaningful *permanent
6. Applied linguistics is an empirical science An important empirical approach to resolving the problems and controversies of language teaching methods has been to undertake experimental comparisons. The Scherer-Wertheimer experiment (1964) was carried out in the context of teaching German at the University of Colorado. The Pennsylvania Project (1970) was a large-scale research project directly inolving the participation of many classes and teachers in the high schools throughout the State of Pennsylvania. The Swedish GUME Project took place in the setting of language classes in high schools and in adult education.
Experimental research has yielded a much more realistic understanding of language teaching and learning. It has also provided a sobering check on some of the claims, often extravagant ones, that innovators and advocators of different methods have been prone to make. A more interesting trend of experimental research in recent years is to focus on the classroom situation, and to find out 搘hat goes on in the classroom?in order to understand better what language teaching is really like.
7. Applied Linguistics in Retrospect----A Short Chronology 1880 Gouin's The Art of Teaching and Studying Languages 1882 Vietor's Language Must Start Afresh! 1897 The International Phonetic Association (IPA) 1899 Sweet's The Practical Study of Languages 1904 Jespersen's How to Teach a Foreign Language 1917 Palmer's The Scientific Study and Teaching of Languages
1930 Ogden's Basic English 1936 Palmer & West's The Carnegie Report on vocabulary selection 1943 The Army Specialized Training Program (ASTP) 1946 English Language Teaching(Journal) under the editorship of Hornby 1946 Language Learning, Journal of Applied Linguistics under the editorship of Fries and Lado 1948 Hornby's A Learner's Dictionary of Current English
1953 West's General Service List of English Words 1957 Lado's Linguistics Across Cultures 1957 School of Applied Linguistics at the University of Edinburgh under the directorship of Catford, who was later succeeded by Pit Corder 1959 Center for Applied Linguistics under the directorship of Ferguson 1961 Voix et Images de France produced by CREDIF(Centre de Recherche et d'Etude pour la Diffusion du Francais)
1964 The first congress of AILA(Association International de Linguistique Applique) 1964 Halliday et al's Linguistic Sciences and Language Teaching 1964 Rivers?The Psychologist and the Foreign Language Teacher 1965 Mackey's Language Teaching Analysis 1965 Chomsky's Aspects of the Theory of Syntax 1966 TESOL(Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages) 1966 Hymes' On Communicative Competence'
1973 Pit Corder's Introducing Applied Linguistics 1977 The Edinburgh Course in Applied Linguistics (4 Volumes) 1976 Wilkin's Notional Syllabuses 1978 Munby's Communicative Syllabus Design 1980 Applied Linguistics(Journal) 1983 Stern’s Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching 1985 Richards et al: Longman Dictionary of Applied Linguistics
8. A linguistic approach to applied linguistics -- the course structure (1) The evolution of a definition of language A. Language is a means of communication. • What is the medium of this means of communication? • Noises in the throat, scribbles on paper, scratches on stone, wigwagging flags, smoke signals, etc. all might "communicate something". • What are the primary means of communication? Written or spoken?
B. Language is a written means of communication. • Mankind was speaking long before the dawn of recorded history. • Great literature was conceived and passed on without the benefit of writing • Many people survive without a writing system. C. Language is a vocal means of communication • Everything we utter is set forth in a meaningful order; in order to have communication, we must have system. D. Language is a vocal system of communication. • How is the system organized? • We must have (a) vocabulary---symbols; (b) grammar grammatical signals.
E. Language is a system of vocal symbols and grammatical signals used for communication. • What is the relation between sound and meaning? • Speakers of a language have all agreed arbitrarily upon the relationship of utterance and concept. F. Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols and grammatical signals used for communication. • Language is called upon not only for communication, but also for interaction. G. Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols and grammatical signals used for communication, interaction, and cultural transmission. • Who uses this instrument for communication, interaction and transmission?
H. Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols and grammatical signals by means of which the members of a speech community communicate, interact, and transmit their culture.
(2) The various aspects of language Language is a system of Unit 2: Language is a generative system arbitrary Unit 4: Language is primary vocal, but can also be visual vocal Unit 3:Language is a set of arbitrary symbols symbols and Unit 5:The symbols have conventionalized meanings to which they refer
grammatical signals Unit 6:Language is used for communication and cultural transmission of which Unit 7: Language operates in a speech community the members of a Unit 8:Language is unique speech community communicate, interact Unit 9:Language is universal and transmit their culture
Unit 1 Applied Linguistics and its linguistic-related disciplines Unit 2 General Linguistics Unit 3 Lexicology Unit 4 Phonetics Unit 5 Semantics Unit 6 Psycholinguistics Unit 7 Sociolinguistics Unit 8 Neurolinguistics Unit 9 General Linguistics