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Society for Conservation Biology. Auburn University Chapter. Guest Speaker: Dr. Sharon Hermann “Longleaf Pine Ecosystem Restoration” Plus: Night Swamp Walk (Shawn Jacobsen and Dr. Folkerts). WHERE? 112 Rouse Life Sciences. WHEN? TUESDAY Sept. 17 6:00-7:00 PM Swamp walk to 11 PM.

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Society for Conservation Biology

Auburn University Chapter

  • Guest Speaker: Dr. Sharon Hermann

  • “Longleaf Pine Ecosystem Restoration”

  • Plus: Night Swamp Walk (Shawn Jacobsen and Dr. Folkerts)

WHERE?

112 Rouse

Life Sciences

WHEN?

TUESDAY

Sept. 17

6:00-7:00 PM

Swamp walk to 11 PM

Check us out at www.auburn.edu/scb

  • Also: Info on Sept. 21 (Saturday morning) longleaf pine restoration tour on campus



Definitions concepts
Definitions/Concepts

  • “The living dead”

  • Long-lived organisms: in habitat fragments too small

  • Ex: St. Helena ebony

    • 2 plants left on cliff


Definitions concepts1
Definitions/Concepts

  • “Extinction Debt”: Eventual loss species from remaining habitat fragments

Brazil rainforest 2005

Red is forest


Unknown extinctions
Unknown extinctions

  • 1) Some species thought extant (still living) are extinct (we don’t know it yet)

  • 2) Undescribed species probably go extinct before collected

Taxonomy:


Is extinction forever maybe
Is extinction forever? Maybe...

  • Rediscoveries (Lazarus species)

  • Ex: Gomeran giant lizard.

photo


Is extinction forever maybe1
Is extinction forever? Maybe...

  • 1.5 ft long (La Gomera Island)

  • Feral cats killed by 1490s?

  • Few on steep cliffs 1999.

A modern cat

on the hunt….


Is extinction forever maybe2
Is extinction forever? Maybe...

  • Ivorybill woodpecker!

  • Feb 2004: Arkansas

The search team


Is extinction forever maybe3
Is extinction forever? Maybe...

  • Alabama freshwater snails: 44 species Mobile River basin extinct

  • 2004: 3 species rediscovered!!

Press

Conference…..


Earth s extinctions
Earth’s Extinctions

  • 6 major extinctions


6 pleistocene extinction
#6: Pleistocene Extinction

  • Started 30,000 yr ago

  • Toward end last ice age


6 pleistocene extinction1
#6: Pleistocene Extinction

  • Arrival humans followed by extinctions of megafauna (animals >100 lb).


Hawaiian bird extinctions
Hawaiian bird extinctions

  • 80% Hawaii’s birds extinct or endangered

Micro- Poly-nesia Hotspot!


Hawaiian bird extinctions1
Hawaiian bird extinctions

  • 55 species (extinct Polynesians)

  • Some (ex, “mamo bird”) hunted (feathers)

  • 1 cape: 70,000 mamo birds!

Feather lei (left),

helmet (above),

and feather capes (right)

Mamo bird


New zealand s moas

NZ Hotspot!

New Zealand’s Moas

  • Large flightless birds: 11 species

  • Extinct by Maori.

Giant moa replica, and

human for scale

Giant moa leg bones


Humans driving species extinct prior to european arrival
Humans driving species extinct prior to European arrival

Lecture 1

  • Europeans continued…

    • Great Auk


Europeans
Europeans

  • Worse than many other cultures

    • 1) Land clearing greater

    • 2) Introduced species: rats, dogs, cats, pigs, goats, sheep, horses, cattle, etc.

Bad European….

Weaponized goat…


Extinction rates 1600 now
Extinction rates (1600-now)

  • Best known: mammals (1.6%), birds (1.3%)

    • Birds: Decline (Fig. 7.4) due to delay in declaring species extinct

Fig. 7.4

Bird extinctions


Extinction rates 1600 now1
Extinction rates (1600-now)

  • New candidates building up…..threatened % large


Hundred heartbeat club
Hundred Heartbeat Club

  • E. O. Wilson: Species <100 individuals (globally!)

  • Who am I?

Hundred Heartbeat Club is on Facebook!


Rates of extinction
Rates of extinction

  • How much due to humans??

  • Calculate:

    • 1) Background rate (how?)

    • 2) Current rate

  • Fossils: How define

  • Species?

  • Phylogenetic (DNA)

  • Biological

  • Morphological


Rates of extinction1
Rates of extinction

  • Study 1: current 100-1000x greater

  • Study 2: current 36-78x more than background

  • Bottom line: Current rate >35x background


New earth epoch anthropocene
New Earth Epoch: Anthropocene

  • Global processes dominated by humans!

    • 1) Extinctions


New earth epoch anthropocene1
New Earth Epoch: Anthropocene

  • Global processes dominated by humans!

    • 1) Extinctions

    • 2) Ecosystem cycles (H2O, C, N)

    • 3) Sedimentation (geol. record)


U s state ranks for extinction
U.S. State ranks for extinction

  • April 2002 report (pdf posted on class webpage)

  • Presumed extinct + possibly extinct

  • #1: Hawaii (217)


U s state ranks for extinction1
U.S. State ranks for extinction

  • April 2002 report (pdf posted on class webpage)

  • Presumed extinct + possibly extinct

  • #1: Hawaii (217)

  • #2: Alabama (90)

  • Why?


U s state ranks for extinction2
U.S. State ranks for extinction

  • #2: Alabama (90)

  • Mostly freshwater organisms

    • 17 mussels, 25 snails……

    • Dams

Lake Jordan Dam, Alabama


U s state ranks for extinction3
U.S. State ranks for extinction

  • April 2002 report (pdf posted on class webpage)

  • Presumed extinct + possibly extinct

  • #1: Hawaii (217)

  • #2: Alabama (90)

  • #3: California (53)

  • #4: Texas (27)

  • #5: Georgia (26).

Mikheil Saakashvili: President of Georgia


Extinctions and islands
Extinctions and Islands

  • 50% terrestrial species extinctions: on islands

  • Why??

Fig. 7.4

Bird extinctions


Extinctions and islands1
Extinctions and Islands

  • Why??

    • 1) Endemism high: adaptive radiation generates new species

    • 2) Small range/habitat/pop’n. size

    • 3) Vulnerable (invasive species, diseases, small range….)

Case study:

Stephen’s

Island

wren

Lecture 1…….


Island extinctions the case of the stephens island wren
Island Extinctions: The Case of the Stephens Island Wren

  • New Zealand wrens: Xenicidae (6 species)

    • 3 extinct on main islands (rats)

J. Cagney

Stephens Island Wren

“You dirty rat……”


Stephens island wren
Stephens Island Wren

  • 1 population on Stephens Island (1 sq. mile area)

    • 1890s: Lighthouse built

    • Keeper’s cat (“Tibbles”)

End…


Island extinctions the case of the stephens island wren1
Island Extinctions: The Case of the Stephens Island Wren

  • 1 cat* discovered & drove extinct the last of a species!

Bird feeder, or

cat feeder??

*Attorney’s Note: More than one cat may have been involved

career


Domestic cat predation
Domestic Cat Predation

  • Estimates:

  • US: 40 million cats allowed outside

  • 60-100 million homeless cats

  • 4-5 million birds killed/day

  • 1 billion small mammals killed/year!


Extinctions and island biogeography
Extinctions and Island Biogeography

  • BIOL 3060 review!

    • MacArthur & Wilson (E.O.)

    • Relates species richness to island size & isolation


Island biogeography
Island Biogeography

  • Model: immigration and extinction rates affected by island size and distance to mainland


Island biogeography1
Island Biogeography

  • Model: immigration and extinction rates affected by island size and distance to mainland


Island biogeography2
Island Biogeography

  • Area increases: species richness increases

Hotspot!

Reptiles &

Amphibians

Caribbean

Islands

Fig. 7.8

Log/log scale

Slope <1


Island biogeography3

Log/log scale

Slope <1

Island Biogeography

  • Formula: S=CAZ

  • S=number species A=area

  • C is constant (high for species-rich groups, like insects)

  • Z is constant (high for groups with restricted geographic ranges, like reptiles)

  • Ex, 10-fold increase area gives 2-fold increase species richness.


Habitat islands and extinction
Habitat islands and extinction

  • CONCEPT: Calculate species loss as habitat lost

    Fig. 7.10 in text

NOTE SHAPE

OF CURVE!!

Data?


Habitat islands and extinction1
Habitat islands and extinction

  • Ex, birds on Singapore

    • Last 180 yr, 95% forest gone

    • Model for birds: predicts 30% species loss

    • 32% extinct since 1923

Rainforest loss….


Habitat islands and extinction2
Habitat islands and extinction

  • Rainforest use:

    • If 1% destroyed/yr

    • 10,000-15,000 species extinct/yr (assuming 5 million species total)

    • 34 species/day


Habitat islands and extinction3
Habitat islands and extinction

  • Controversial--assumptions/generalizations:

    • 1) Curves vary (by taxon)

    • 2) Cleared habitat assumed unsuitable

    • 3) Pattern fragmentation matters


Aquatic extinctions death aquatic
Aquatic Extinctions(“Death Aquatic”?)


Aquatic extinctions marine
Aquatic Extinctions (Marine)

  • Good news: 21 species extinct past 300 yrs (16 since 1972!)

  • Bad news: underestimate (lack knowledge)

Caribbean monk seal


Aquatic extinctions fresh
Aquatic Extinctions (Fresh)

  • Freshwater extinctions high: mainlands mostly (species richness greatest)

    • US: TN, AL, GA, FL (SE) most freshwater species at risk.

Fig. 7.7

Fish & mussels


Local extinctions
Local extinctions

  • Less attention than global: but more occur!!

% populations left

% habitat preserved

Shape curve?


Local extinctions1
Local extinctions

  • Conservation problem:

    • 1) Decrease community diversity


Local extinctions2
Local extinctions

  • Conservation problem:

    • 2) Decrease genetic diversity of species

Fig. 7.12


Local extinctions3
Local extinctions

  • Conservation problem:

    • 3) Decrease evolutionary potential (adaptation/speciation)

Fig. 2.4


The end
The End

  • ….of material for Exam #1 (Sept. 24)

Grad Students:

Please stay for brief discussion

of critiques……….


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