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Colonial Population. Divergence between the cultures of the colonies, tried to distance themselves from Native Americans, population grew rapidly through immigration and natural increase- by late 17th century Europeans and Africans became dominant. America in 1700. Colonial Population.

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Colonial population
Colonial Population

  • Divergence between the cultures of the colonies, tried to distance themselves from Native Americans, population grew rapidly through immigration and natural increase- by late 17th century Europeans and Africans became dominant

Colonial population1
Colonial Population

  • The “melting pot” was in effect with colonists from different European countries. Differences in cultures were already being implemented in the behavior of colonists.

Colonial population2
Colonial Population

  • Early settlers included the emerging middle class, business men, indentured servants and sons of Englishmen who stood to inherit no land.

Colonial population3
Colonial Population

  • Indenture system provided way to cope with the severe labor shortage- came to escape troubles in England or with hopes of establishing themselves. Indentured servants bind themselves to a four or five year service in exchange for passage to America, food and shelter.

Colonial population4
Colonial Population

  • The indentured system allowed the high rates labor shortage in the Chesapeake

  • Life after freedom from indentured servitude was rough; no land or work. Families had remained in England with no hope of a better future (there were better opportunities in Pennsylvania and New York).

Colonial population5
Colonial Population

  • By 1670's immigration began to decline due to decrease in English birth rate and an increase in English prosperity

  • Conditions of settlement improved, improvements in reproduction rate began in New England and Mid- Atlantic colonies

Colonial population6
Colonial Population

  • Cool climate, relatively disease free environment, clean water, absence of large population centers; caused New England to have the best longevity in life (71)

Colonial population7
Colonial Population

  • Mortality rates in Chesapeake stay high (men just over 40):1 in 4 children died at infancy due to inadequate food, frequent epidemics, malaria, and salty drinking water. Life expectancy: men-71 women-70

  • Deaths in colonial era were largely due to inadequate medical knowledge. Death common in childbirth and surgery

Colonial population8
Colonial Population

  • Midwives aided in childbirth and used “medical knowledge” to provide herbal or natural remedies. Medicine rested so much on ideas produced thousands of years prior. Little support for scientific method-would gain acceptance in the Enlightenment.

Colonial population9
Colonial Population

  • Widows, widowers and orphans formed substantial portion of white population

  • More women began to arrive in colonies- ratio of men to women became more balanced. Few women remained unmarried long (20 or 21)

  • Traditional male centered family structure difficult to maintain

Colonial population10
Colonial Population

  • Women in the Chesapeake lives' consumed by childbearing (av. 8 about 5 died in infancy or early childhood). Average wife became pregnant every two years.

  • Maryland and Virginia created special courts to protect orphans

Colonial population11
Colonial Population

  • Families stability grew, traditional patterns of male authority revived- "patriarchal" dominated by male head of family

  • New England- more stable, women married young, children more likely to survive, families more likely to remain intact, less independent

Colonial population12
Colonial Population

  • Less control over marriage conditions, fathers more often alive, parents controlled children far longer

Colonial population13
Colonial Population

  • Men depend on fathers for land, stricter parental supervision, Puritan church was a powerful institution and social presence, high value on family, principle economic unit- absolute male authority- women expected to be modest and submissive

Colonial population14
Colonial Population

  • By 1749 indentured servitude being replaced with slaves

  • Slave trade responsible for immigration of 11 million Africans to North and South America and Caribbean

Colonial population15
Colonial Population

  • The Caribbean and Brazil’s labor intensive sugar economies created a larger demand for slaves

  • First black laborers arrived before 1620. Fewer than 5% of Africans imported to the Americas went directly to the English colonies on the mainland- West Indies first

Colonial population16
Colonial Population

  • "Middle Passage" - journey to America

Colonial population17
Colonial Population

  • 1670's started importing blacks directly- Royal African Company- monopoly on trade in mainland colonies

  • 1690's turning point, monopoly broken; 1700-1760 number of Africans increased tenfold to 25 million- basis of southern work force

Colonial population18
Colonial Population

  • "Slave Codes" limited rights of blacks, ensured absolute authority to white masters

  • Subordinated as an inferior race

  • In places like South Carolina slaves and landowners lived in relative equality; some slaves would be freed after servitude and few went on to own land.

Colonial population19
Colonial Population

  • Flow of immigrants from England declined as a result of better economic conditions, new government restrictions on immigration

Colonial population20
Colonial Population

  • French Calvinists- Huguenots, revoked the Edict of Nantes

  • German Protestants- arbitrary religious policies, arrived in NY, made way to PA

  • "Pennsylvania Dutch", Quaker colony

Immigrant groups in colonial america
Immigrant GroupsIn Colonial America

Colonial population21
Colonial Population

  • Most numerous- Scotch-Irish- prohibited from exporting wool to England, outlawed Presbyterian religion, tripled rents- went west, claimed land as own, disliked, ruthless, displaced Indians

  • Scotland- high rents, unemployment; left for North Carolina

  • By 1775 over 2 million, population nearly doubled every 25 years

Colonial economies
Colonial Economies

  • Farming dominated all areas of European and African settlement. Colonies relied on some relations with Native Americans

Colonial economies1
Colonial Economies

  • Chesapeake- tobacco basis of economy, suffered periodic declines, boom and bust, overproduction

Colonial economies2
Colonial Economies

  • South Carolina and Georgia- rice and indigo (Eliza Eucas), dependent on slaves- more adept at basic agricultural tasks, accustomed to hot weather. Developed less commercial or industrial economy, few cities of modest size

Colonial economies3
Colonial Economies

  • Northern colonies-varied nonagricultural activities, conditions for farming less favorable- cold weather, hard rocky soil

  • Farmers in NY, PA and Conn. River Valley cultivated staple crops, supplier of wheat to the south, applied German cultivation methods, women worked too

Colonial economies4
Colonial Economies

  • Attempted industrial enterprises- shipbuilding

  • Largest industrial enterprise- Peter Hasenclever, iron making. Employed several hundred German workers

Colonial economies5
Colonial Economies

  • Iron Act of 1750 restricted metal processing in the colonies

  • Restrictions, inadequate labor supply, inadequate domestic market, no infrastructure

  • Lumber, mining, fishing, - produced goods in New England, exported back to England, thriving commercial class

Colonial economies6
Colonial Economies

  • Half of the country’s farmers were poorly equip (houses didn’t have essentials like pots and pans)

  • No currency- relied on a barter system, chaotic commerce.

Colonial economies7
Colonial Economies

  • Triangular trade-maze of trade routes- rum, slaves and sugar. Emergence of merchant class in Northern port cities (Boston, New York and Philadelphia)

Colonial economies8
Colonial Economies

  • British Navigation Acts- excluded non-British ships from colonial carrying trade

  • Colonies ignored British laws. Developed markets in French, Spanish and Dutch West Indies. Resulted in obsession with material goods and social status. Luxury goods including tea, linens, furniture, glassware, cutlery and crockery.

Patterns in society
Patterns in Society

  • Imbalance between land and population became a foundation of English economy

  • 17th century plantations-rough relatively small estates isolated far from cities led to self-contained communities. Wealthy landowners exercised social and economic influence

Patterns in society1
Patterns in Society

  • Large plantation owners controlled those they employed (or enslaved) and the smaller famers in their area with economic influence.

Patterns in society2
Patterns in Society

  • 3/4 of slaves lived on plantation with 10 or more slaves; nearly half lived in communities with 50 or more slaves.

  • Slaves sang in native tongues that reinforced connection with ancestry. Distinct religion blended Christianity with African folklore.

Patterns in society3
Patterns in Society

  • Stono Rebellion in South Carolina in 1739, slaves attempt to escape to Florida, crushed the uprising

Patterns in society4
Patterns in Society

  • Social unit in Puritan New England town, drew up a covenant among members binding them in religious and social harmony

  • Houses around central "common", strong sense of community

Patterns in society5
Patterns in Society

  • Only those who had conversion experience admitted as full members of church

  • Tightly knit society, rigid patriarchal structure, strong sense of commercialization

Patterns in society6
Patterns in Society

  • 1680's-1690's Witchcraft accusations reflect social strains, resent favored position of eastern neighbors, jealous

Patterns in society7
Patterns in Society

  • Salem Witch Trials- teenage girls in Salem, MA accused West Indian servants of “voodoo”. 19 citizens in Salem were put to death before accusers admitted making up stories. Arthur Miller’s The Crucible- famous example of Trials.

  • Most middle aged women, widowed, few children, substantial land, challenged the Social norms

Patterns in society8
Patterns in Society

  • Philadelphia and New York- biggest ports, served as trading centers, social distinctions.

  • Cities brought urban problems- crime, vice, pollution, epidemics, traffic.

The colonial mind
The Colonial Mind

  • New spirit of enlightenment- stressed importance of science and human reason; people had control over lives

  • Church of England never succeeded in making Anglicanism a dominant force

The colonial mind1
The Colonial Mind

  • Differences in church structure, religious toleration, diversity among religions

  • Catholics most numerous in MD, - deprived of political rights, forbidden to hold religious services

The colonial mind2
The Colonial Mind

  • Populations moving westward, lost touch w. organized religion, declining piety

  • Halfway Covenant- gave people of 3rd and later generations right to be baptized but not right to partake of communion or vote in church affairs

The colonial mind3
The Colonial Mind

  • Great Awakening began 1730s, new spirit of religious fervor, residents of areas withsocial and economic tensions, women, people of all backgrounds, intense religious experience

  • George Whitefield - made evangelizing tours offered relief from guilt, no need to rely on clergy to help gain forgiveness

The colonial mind4
The Colonial Mind

  • Jonathan Edwards- orthodox Puritan, attacked the new doctrines of easy salvation for all, traditional puritan ideas, absolute sovereignty of God, predestination, salvation by God's grace alone

The colonial mind5
The Colonial Mind

  • “New light" ministers revivalist (Whitefield)

  • “Old lights” - traditional, weakened authority of established churches, created increasing hostility to the traditional clergy, opened religion to be more diverse, strengthened Calvinism (Edwards)

The colonial mind6
The Colonial Mind

  • Enlightment began in Europe, argued that reason, not just faith could create progress and advance knowledge, encouraged to look to themselves, not God, new emphasis on education

The colonial mind7
The Colonial Mind

  • Families tried to teach children at home. Massachusetts law (1647) required every town to support a public school. White males achieved high literacy rates (well over half of men could read and write)

The colonial mind8
The Colonial Mind

  • Almanac-first widely circulated publication

  • Harvard- first American college, founded to train ministers

  • Cambridge, William And Mary- academy to train clergymen

The colonial mind9
The Colonial Mind

  • Yale, College of New Jersey (Princeton)

  • Kings College (Columbia) devoted to the spread of knowledge

  • University of Pennsylvania offered courses in utilitarian subjects

  • Royal Society of London-leading English scientific organization

  • Cotton Mather- small pox inoculation

The colonial mind10
The Colonial Mind

  • American legal system adopted English system and “trial by jury”. Significant differences visible. American courts were simpler.

  • 1734-1735 trial of John Peter Zenger, a New York publisher- removed some statutes of freedom of the press by ruling that “criticisms of the government were not libelous if true”

The colonial mind11
The Colonial Mind

  • Colonial communities used to running own affairs. Provincial governors appointed by crown. British exerted little power they believed they had, led to crisis in 1763.