Sustainable Practices in Iron and Steel Industry Environment Management Division STEEL AUTHORITY OF INDIA LIMITED ECAC, WBPCB, Kolkata 23.11.2012
What is Sustainability ? Sustainabilitymeans living within the resources of the planet without damaging the environment now or in the future.
What is Sustainable Development? Integration of industrial development and protection of environment is the essence of Sustainable Development
Ancient Philosophy – Respect for Environment In ‘Rig Veda’, it is stated: Sky is like a father Earth is like a mother Space is as their children It reflects that environment is to be valued like parents and loved like children
Steel - a vital resource for Sustainable Development • The rapid and continuing growth of steel industry during last few decades bears testimony to the indispensability of steel, as a vital resource for sustainable development. • Steel as a finished product, is one of the most environment friendly products, owing to its excellent mechanical properties, versatility and its recyclability.
Environmental Aspects of Iron & Steel Industries However, the process of steel making itself is highly energy and fossil fuel intensive and consequently a major GHG emitting process and therefore, the cause of environmental concern across the world. • Locally steel making industry is normally perceived to be large, dirty and polluting by civil society and environmentalists.
Growth of Indian Iron & Steel Industry • In commensuration with the growth of Indian economy, steel industry in India has also grown accordingly. • Presently, crude steel production is ~72 MT, expected to reach ~150 MT per year by 2016 – 17. • Such perceived growth in steel production capacity can be achieved mainly through rise in steel consumption, particularly in rural sector. • Enhancement of production capacity requires construction of new steel plants and expansion of existing plants. • This would also imply increased extraction of natural resources and their processing.
Over the years, the domestic steel industry has improved its technology and maintenance systems. • However, globally, Indian Steel Industry is yet to fully match its competitors in the developed countries in all the areas pertaining to adoption of sustainable production technique. • Unless there is reduction in the consumption pattern of the input materials as well as specific emission intensities, it may be difficult to achieve a balance between increased production and minimum possible damage to the environment by the industries. • The increase in capacity needs to address environmental issues for long term sustainability. Challenging Issues for today
Sustainable Practices are the only way out tomeet these challenges and for long term viability of the iron and steel industry.
Initiatives from Government • Environmental Rules and Regulations, notified from time to time - recently harmonized the notification for iron and steel industries • Charter on Corporate Responsibility for Environmental Protection (CREP), 2003 - to go beyond the compliance with the environmental standards • National Environmental Policy (NEP), 2006 - promotes sustainable development • National Action Plan for Climate Change (NAPCC), 2008 identified 8 National Missions, - to achieve sustainable development • Sustainable Development / MOU Guidelines issued by Department of Public Enterprise - including Sustainable Development as a compulsory element for Central Public Sector Enterprises
Sustainable Practices in Iron and Steel Industries Sustainable practice aims at: • Resource Conservation • Energy conservation • Pollution Control
Efforts towards Resource Conservation • Beneficiation to use lean ore and to recover iron ore fines from slime Conservation of Raw Materials • Incorporation of appropriate beneficiation system to maximise use of ore reserve and to recover additional iron value from slime • The slime loss has been drastically reduced to ~10 % from ~20% with the recovery of quality fines concentrate. Being installed at Bolani, Gua, Barsua-Taldih, Chiria and Dalli Mechanised Iron Ore mines of SAIL
Efforts towards Resource Conservation Conservation of Raw Materials • Pelletisation of iron ore fines • Advantages: • To transform fines concentrate generated during the iron ore beneficiation process into pellets, suitable to feed Blast Furnace or Direct Reduction plant or Corex. • Gainful usage of ultrafines, which other wise would have gone into slime. • Usage of agglomerated ore improves BF productivity Pellet Plants of capacity 4.0 MTPA and 1.0 MPTA are under installation at Gua Ore mines and Dalli Mechanised Mines respectively.
Efforts towards Resource Conservation Conservation of Raw materials • Adoption of ITmk3 technology for production of steel from iron ore fines • Advantages: • Direct use of low grade material (e.g, fine ore and boiler quality coal) to produce nuggets • Highly energy-efficient, low environmental load A plant with 0.5 MPTA nuggets production capacity is being installed at Alloy Steels Plant premises at Durgapur
Efforts towards Resource Conservation Conservation of Raw Materials • BOF slag being used as flux supplement for base mix preparation in Sinter Plant • Use of BOF sludge in base mix for Sinter Plant • Adoption of 3R’s (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) for waste utilization. As a result, solid waste utilization at SAIL plants show consistent improvement over the years.
Efforts towards Resource Conservation Management of Solid waste For ensuring proper and complete management of solid waste, SAIL has taken up following projects on environment under Research & Development (R&D) Master Plan; • Utilisation of Slag • Dry granulation of BOF slag • Utilisation of Sludge • Almond briquetting of sludge for use in converter • Micro-palletisation of sludge for use in sinter plant
Efforts towards Resource Conservation Conservation of Water • For further reduction in water consumption, “Zero Discharge” scheme is under different stages of implementation at plants. • Efficient local re-circulation systems and plugging of leakages, resulting in reduction of sp. water consumption drastically.
Efforts towards Energy Conservation Energy-efficient Technologies have been implemented/are being implemented under on-going expansion/modernization projects in different processes of steel making to achieve reduction in specific energy consumption and specific CO2 emission. CDQ Higher Capacity COB TRT BLT Recovery of BOF Gas CCCS Continuous Casting Multi-Slit Burners Sinter Waste Heat Recovery Sec. Emission Control CDI Hot Stove Waste Heat Recovery Walking Beam Furnace
Efforts towards Energy Conservation • Coke Making • Coke Dry Quenching (CDQ) • Computerized Combustion Control System (CCCS) • High Pressure Liquor Aspiration (HPLA) System • Modern Leak-proof Doors • Higher Capacity Coke Oven Battery
Efforts towards Energy Conservation Coke Dry Quenching (CDQ) • Features & Benefits: • Better coke quality • Reduces emissions • Recovers sensible heat of coke • Generates electricity • Water conservation • Disadvantages: • High initial cost • Space constraints • Difficult for retrofitting Under installation with new Coke-Oven batteries at BSP, RSP & ISP under on-going expansion cum modernization in SAIL plants 20
Efforts towards Energy Conservation Computerised Combustion Control System (CCCS) • Features & Benefits: • Optimise battery heating • Fuel and energy efficiency • Maintain good and uniform • coke temp. • Disadvantages: • Difficulty in retrofitting in • running batteries • High initial cost Installed at Coke-Oven batteries at BSP, RSP and BSL and under installation with new Coke-Oven batteries under on-going expansion cum modernization in SAIL plants
Efforts towards Energy Conservation High Pressure Ammonia Liquor Aspiration System (HPALA) • Features & Benefits: • Emission control • gainful recovery of • carbonaceous material • Energy-efficient • Disadvantages: • Integration with up and • downstream facilities • Difficulty in retrofitting in operating batteries Progressively introduced during rebuilding of coke oven batteries at various plants and also being incorporated at new batteries at BSP, RSP and ISP under modernisation cum expansion project of SAIL
Efforts towards Energy Conservation Clean Technologies - Coke Making Modern Leak-proof Door • Features & Benefits: • Minimise emission from • doors • Regulation-free operation • Less maintenance-prone • Disadvantages: • High initial cost Progressively installed at all SAIL plants and also being installed at new batteries at BSP, RSP and ISP under modernization cum expansion project of SAIL
Efforts towards Energy Conservation Higher Capacity Coke Oven (7 m tall) Battery • Features & Benefits: • Energy efficiency • Less pollution prone • Better maintainability • Disadvantages: • High initial cost • machineries can not be shared amongst a batch of old batteries Installed at BSP and also under installation at BSP, RSP and ISP with new coke oven batteries under modernisation cum expansion project of SAIL
Efforts towards Energy Conservation • Sinter Making • Waste Heat Recovery from Sinter Coolers • Multi-slit Burners in Ignition Furnace
Efforts towards Energy Conservation Waste Heat Recovery from Sinter Cooler • Features & Benefits: • Achieving energy efficiency through recovery of waste heat • Reducing emissions • Fuel savings • Disadvantages: • High initial cost • Difficulty in retrofitting in the existing plant CYCLONE Comb. Gas Hot Air Clean Hot Air to Furnace Hot Air Extraction Hood Sinter Furnace SINTER MACHINE Hot Air Extraction Hood Installed with Sinter Plants at BSP and DSP and under installation with new Sinter Plants at ISP & BSL and Sinter Machines at BSP, under on-going modernization cum expansion project of SAIL SINTER COOLERS
Efforts towards Energy Conservation Multi-Slit Burners in Ignition Furnace • Features & Benefits: • Fuel savings • Less emissions • Barriers: • High initial cost Installed at all plants and also being installed at various plants under under modernisation cum expansion project of SAIL
Efforts towards Energy Conservation • Iron Making • Coal Dust Injection (CDI) • Waste Heat Recovery from BF Stoves • Top Gas Pressure Recovery Turbine (TRT)
Efforts towards Energy Conservation Coal Dust Injection (CDI) • Features & Benefits: • Uses thermal coal which in turn reduces coke rate and hence reduces energy consumption and emissions in CO battery • Reduces dependency on costly coking coal • Increases BF refractory lining life • Disadvantages: • Difficulty in achieving required burden characteristics and blast temp. • Achieving uniform transfer of pulverized coal CDI / CTI installed at 16 out of 20 BFs at SAIL plants. Facility is being installed with new BFs under on-going modernisation cum expansion project of SAIL
Efforts towards Energy Conservation Blast Furnace Heat Recuperation • Features & Benefits: • Energy Saving • Disadvantages: • High initial cost Being installed with new BFs at BSP, RSP and ISP under on-going modernisation cum expansion program of SAIL
Efforts towards Energy Conservation Top Pressure Recovery Turbine (TRT) • Features & Benefits: • Generates electric power, utilizing top gas pressure, which was getting wasted otherwise • Excellent operational reliability • Disadvantages: • Suitable for larger furnace • with higher temp. & press. • only • High initial cost Being installed with new BFs at BSP, RSP and ISP under on-going modernisation cum expansion program of SAIL
Efforts towards Energy Conservation • Steel Making • Recovery of BOF gas • Continuous Casting
Efforts towards Energy Conservation Recovery of BOF Gas • Features & Benefits: • Energy saving through utilization of heat value of by-product gas • Reduction in emissions • Reduction in quantity of • flue gas • Disadvantages: • High initial cost • Increased operational • and maintenance cost • Retrofitting in existing • system Installed at all steel plants and being installed with new BOFs at BSP, RSP and ISP under on-going modernisation cum expansion program of SAIL
Efforts towards Energy Conservation Continuous Casting • Features & Benefits: • Energy saving • Emission reduction • Resource conservation • Enhanced yield and • quality • Disadvantages: • high initial cost • Space and layout • Retrofitting in existing • system Installed at BSP, DSP, RSP and BSL, and being installed at ISP under on-going modernisation cum expansion program
Efforts towards Energy Conservation Rolling Walking Beam Furnace • Features & Benefits: • Highly energy efficient • Uniform heating • Enhanced quality • Disadvantages: • High initial cost • Retrofitting in existing • system Installed at BSP and being installed at BSL under on-going modernization cum expansion program of SAIL
Efforts towards Pollution Control SAIL has identified a two-pronged approach: Adoption of Clean Technologies and Implementation of Cleaning-up Technologies
Efforts towards Pollution Control Clean Technology refers to the technology that is economically competitive & productive, uses less material and/or energy, generates less waste, and causes less environmental damage than the alternatives. Cleaning-up Technology refers to the technology that reduces environmental damage by retrofitting, modification and adding end-of pipe pollution abatement measures to an established plant and process.
Efforts towards Pollution Control • Coke Making • Control of stack emission through latest technology like ceramic welding etc. • Introduction of screw-feed charging cars with HPLA system • Installation of water sealed AP caps, modern leak-proof doors • Installation of Dry Fog Dust Suppression (DFDS) system at Coal Handling and Coke Handling Plant to arrest work-zone emission • Installation of BOD Plant for efficient treatment of phenolic CO-BP effluent
Efforts towards Pollution Control • Raw Material Handling • Dry Fog Dust Suppression (DFDS) systems at Wagon Tipplers • Dust Extraction (DE) systems at transfer points • Sinter Making • Efficient de-dusting system for improved work-zone environment at Material Handling Area • Process emission control and area de-dusting through installation of ESP
Efforts towards Pollution Control • Iron Making • Gas Cleaning Plant with Belt filter • Cast House De-dusting System • Dry Fog Dust Suppression (DFDS) for control of work-zone emission at Highline/Stock House
Efforts towards Pollution Control • Steel Making • Gas Cleaning Plant with Vacuum Drum filter • Control of secondary emission through installation of Dog House • Bag filters for work-zone emission control at Flux Handling Area
Efforts towards Pollution Control • Rolling • Effluent Treatment Plant for treatment of effluent generated during rolling process • Others • Sewage Treatment Plant and utilization of treated effluent for industrial use • Concord Blue Technology for treatment of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)
To sum up • Adopting sustainable practices for iron & steel making is the only option to counteract the associated maladies at this juncture of growing demand. • Along with the Industry, concerted efforts are needed from all the major players e.g. the Govt., Policy makers, Media, Consumers etc. • Multidisciplinary research work is essential for exploring newer application and optimising use of existing technologies for a sustainable and environmentally sound management. • SAIL is committed to Sustainable Development through progressive adoption of energy efficient technologies, resource conservation and pollution control.
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