Translation tips Week 10
Contents: • Causative verbs • Cover letter • Guide to basic business letters • Good writing etiquette • Translation tips
Causative Verbs (使役動詞 ) • Causative verbs designate the action necessary to cause another action to happen.
In "The devil made me do it." the verb "made" causes the "do" to happen. • Here is a brief list of causative verbs, in no particular order: let, help, allow, have, require, allow, motivate, get, make, convince, hire, assist, encourage, permit, employ, force. Most of them are followed by an object (noun or pronoun) followed by an infinitive: She allows her pet cockatiel to perch on the windowsill. She hired a carpenter to build a new birdcage.“ • Instead of being followed by a noun/pronoun and an infinitive, the causative verbs have, make and let are followed by a noun/pronoun and the base form of the verb (which is actually an infinitive with the "to" left off).
Makemake + sb. + V ="to force someone to do something." • The teacher made John get his book in the office. • Father makes me go to the music show tomorrow afternoon. • She made her children do their homework.
LetLet + sb. + V = "to allow someone to do something." • John let me drive his new car. • Will your parents let you go to the party? • I don't know if my boss will let me take the day off.
HaveHave + sb. + V = "to give someone the responsibility to do something." • Dr. Smith had his nurse take the patient's temperature. • Please have your secretary fax me the information. • I had the mechanic check the brakes.
GetGet + sb. + to + V = "to convince to do something" or "to trick someone into doing something." • Susie got her son to take the medicine even though it tasted terrible. • How can parents get their children to read more? • The government TV commercials are trying to get people to stop smoking. Sometimes "get someone to do something" is interchangeable with "have someone do something," but these expressions do not mean exactly the same thing. Examples: • I got the mechanic to check my brakes.(At first the mechanic didn't think it was necessary, but I convinced him to check the brakes. ) • I had the mechanic check my brakes.(I asked the mechanic to check the brakes. )
Practice - make / have / let / get had let 1. Professor Yu ______ each of her students write an essay describing their future goals in life. 2. Marcus ______ me drive his new BMW. I couldn't believe how quickly it picked up speed. 3. Tommy didn't want to go to his cousin's birthday party, but his mom _______ him go. 4. I can't believe the zoo keeper ______ you feed the snake. 5. Cheryl didn't want to wash her car, so with a little smooth talk she ______ her boyfriend to wash it for her. 6. Dr. Jackson ______ the nurse monitor the patient's condition overnight. 7. Mr. Wang ______ his secretary call Mr. Lu and reconfirm their meeting on Thursday. 8. Debbie's husband hates the opera. But after days of nagging, she finally ______ him to go see the latest one. made let got had had got
Causative V + O + to V (O) • I allowed Jim to clean up the mess. • I asked Jim to clean up the mess. • I told Jim to clean up the mess. • I persuaded Jim to clean up the mess. • I really have to force myself to be pleasant to him. • You can't force her to make a decision. The verb help can be used with or without "to“; Using “to” is more common in British English: • Help Jim (to) clean up the mess. • Our teacher helped us (to) practice singing.
Causative V that S + V • I insisted that Laura do her homework. • I suggested that Laura do her homework. • I recommended that Laura do her homework.
Other examples • The officer commanded his men to shoot. • He commanded that the troops (should) cross the water. • Please remind me to post this letter. • I rang Jill and reminded her (that) the conference had been cancelled. • Lawyers will urge the parents to take further legal action. • Investigators urged that safety procedures at the site should be improved.
We requested that the next meeting be held on a Friday. • I demand to see the manager. • She demanded that he return the books he borrowed from her. • Bringing up children often requires you to put their needs first. • You are required by law to stop your car after an accident. • The rules require that you bring only one guest to the dinner. • You should ask your accountant to give you some financial advice. • We ask that any faulty goods should be returned in their original packaging.
Verbs Can Become Adjectives • Words that are normally verbs can often be used as adjectives. If a word modifies a noun or pronoun, it is an adjective, even if that word is usually associated with a different part of speech.
smile filter freeze fall translate sleep inspect do fish 《Practice》 1. Many kind carpenters offered to repair the broken porch. 2. Never kiss a smiling crocodile. 3. My father prefers to drink filtered spring water. 4. This isn’t chocolate ice cream; it’s frozen chocolate milk! 5. The fallen leaves covered the new driveway. 6. She was happy to find the translated version of the book. 7. The sleeping dog’s snoring was louder than a train. 8. I’d rather eat at a recently inspected restaurant. 9. Are you just hoping it will happen or is it a done deal? 10. Mary forgot to bring her new fishing pole. break
Cover letter (http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/723/03/ )
What Is a Cover Letter? • A cover letter introduces you and your resume to potential employers or organizations you seek to join (non-profits, educational institutions, etc). It is the first document an employer sees, so it is often the first impression you will make. Take advantage of this important first impression and prepare the reader for your application, stating why you are writing, why you are a good match for the job and the organization, and when you will contact him or her. Cover letters do more than introduce your resume, though. A cover letter's importance also includes its ability to: • Explain your experiences in a story-like format that works with the information provided in your resume • Allow you to go in-depth about important experiences/skills and relate them to job requirements • Show the employer that you are individualizing this job application • Provide a sample of your written communication skills
Formatting your cover letter • Your cover letter should convey a professional message. Of course, the particular expectations of a professional format depend on the organization you are looking to join. • For example, an accounting position at a legal firm will require a more traditional document format. A position as an Imagineer at Disney might require a completely different approach. • Again, a close audience analysis of the company and the position will yield important information about the document expectations. Let the organization's communications guide your work.
For this example, we are using a traditional approach to cover letters: • Single-space your cover letter • Leave a space between each paragraph • Leave 3 spaces between your salutation (such as "Sincerely" or "Sincerely Yours") and typed name • Leave a space between your heading (contact information) and greeting (such as, "Dear Mr. Roberts") • Either align all paragraphs to the left of the page, or indent the first line of each paragraph to the right • Use standard margins for your cover letter, such as one-inch margins on all sides of the document • Center your letter in the middle of the page; in other words, make sure that the space at the top and bottom of the page is the same • Sign your name in ink between your salutation and typed name
What do I include in my cover letter heading? The heading provides your contact information, the date you are writing, and the address of the company to which you are applying. For your contact information, you will want to include the following: • Your name • The address where you can be reached (if you live at college, will it be more accessible to include the local address or your permanent address?) • Phone number • Fax number (if applicable) • E-mail address Then, you will skip a line and write the full date (month, day, year). Follow this by skipping a space and writing the contact information for the person to whom you are writing: • Name of the specific person • Title of that person (if available) • Address of the company • The reason you write your phone/fax number and email address is to make it easy for the company to contact you. You do not need to put this information down for the company itself.
Example: Craig M. Leroix2987 W. Taylor Dr.Portland, OR firstname.lastname@example.org February 2, 2005 Amy Kincaid, Human Resource DirectorWestern Electric, Inc.387 Collier LaneAtlanta, Georgia 30051
Addressing your cover letter • Whenever possible, you should address your letter to a specific individual, the person in charge of interviewing and hiring (the hiring authority). Larger companies often have standard procedures for dealing with solicited and unsolicited resumes and cover letters. Sending your employment documents to a specific person increases the chances that they will be seriously reviewed by the company. • When a job advertisement does not provide you with the name of the hiring authority, call the company to ask for more information. Even if your contact cannot tell you the name of the hiring authority, you can use this time to find out more about the company. • If you cannot find out the name of the hiring authority, you may address your letter to "hiring professionals" - e.g., "Dear Hiring Professionals."
The introduction • The body of your introduction can be organized in many ways. However, it is important to include, who you are and why you are writing. It can also state how you learned about the position and why you are interested in it. (This might be the right opportunity to briefly relate your education and/or experience to the requirements of the position.) • Most important is to briefly overview why your values and goals align with the organization's and how you will help them. You should also touch on how you match the position requirements. By reviewing how you align with the organization and how your skills match what they're looking for, you can forecast the contents of your cover letter before you move into your argument.
The argument • Your argument is an important part of your cover letter, because it allows you to persuade your reader why you are a good fit for the company and the job. Carefully choose what to include in your argument. • You want your argument to be as powerful as possible, but it shouldn't cloud your main points by including excessive or irrelevant details about your past. In addition, use your resume (and refer to it) as the source of "data" you will use and expand on in your cover letter.
In your argument, you should try to: • Show your reader you possess the most important skills s/he seeks (you're a good match for the organization's mission/goals and job requirements). • Convince your reader that the company will benefit from hiring you (how you will help them). • Include in each paragraph a strong reason why your employer should hire you and how they will benefit from the relationship. • Maintain an upbeat/personable tone. • Avoid explaining your entire resume but use your resume as a source of data to support your argument (the two documents should work together).
The closing Your closing restates your main points and reveals what you plan to do after your readers have received your resume and cover letter. In your closing: • Restate why you align with the organization's mission/goals. • Restate why your skills match the position requirements and how your experience will help the organization. • Inform your readers when you will contact them. • Include your phone number and e-mail address. • Thank your readers for their consideration.
A sample closing: • I believe my coursework and work experience in electrical engineering will help your Baltimore division attain its goals, and I look forward to meeting with you to discuss the job position further. I will contact you before June 5th to discuss my application. If you wish to contact me, I may be reached at 765-555-6473, or by e-mail at email@example.com. Thank you for your time and consideration.
Other tips • When you tell readers you will contact them, it is imperative that you do so. It will not reflect well on you if you forget to call a potential employer when you said you would. It's best to demonstrate your punctuality and interest in the company by calling when you say you will. • If you do not feel comfortable informing your readers when you will contact them, ask your readers to contact you, and thank them for their time. For example: Please contact me at 765-555-6473, or by e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org. I look forward to speaking with you. Thank you for your time and consideration. • Always proofread your cover letter carefully. • Unless requested otherwise, always single space your professional communication. • Research the corporate website, read and try to understand their mission statement.
Examples of cover letters • http://www.csuchico.edu/plc/coverltr-ex.html • http://www.cvtips.com/cover_letter_example.html
Guide to Basic Business Letters • A business letter serves the main purpose of communication between two companies, or it is a method to talk to different people within a business. • The purpose for business writings is to inform readers of information you want to get across or possibly persuade the readers to do something. (http://esl.about.com/cs/onthejobenglish/a/a_basbletter.htm ) (http://www.theenglishweb.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/2007/10/letter_and_email_phrases.pdf )
The 7 C 's of business writing Most problems with business letters are they are either hard to understand or very long and drawn out. One solution that many writers use to correct this problem is to double check the writing to make sure it follows the seven C's of business writing. • Clear • Concise • Correct • Courteous • Conversational • Convincing • Complete
Dear Personnel Director, Dear Sir or Madam:(use if you don't know who you are writing to) Dear Dr, Mr, Mrs, Miss or Ms Smith: (use if you know who you are writing to, and have a formal relationship with - VERY IMPORTANT use Ms for women unless asked to use Mrs or Miss) Dear Frank:(use if the person is a close business contact or friend) The Start
Making references The reason for writing
Asking for information or advice Explaining and clarifying
Replying a request Requesting Could you possibly? I would be grateful if you could… Could you give me some information about…
Making reference to something your reader knows Saying thank you
Making a suggestion or giving advice Enclosing
Apologizing Referring to a meeting
Asking for action Offering help
Excuse of delaying reply Excuse of technical problems
Common types of business letters Acknowledgement letter This letter is meant to thank the reader for something they did for you in the office. It could simply be saying thanks for receiving something the reader sent or maybe thanking them for their help with something. This type of letter is not required in a business environment, but it is appreciated.Adjustment Letter This letter should be used in response to a written complaint against someone or something. The purpose of it is to inform the reader that actions are being taken against the wrong doing as well as it serves as a legal document acknowledging the complaint.Complaint Letter The complaint letter is much like the adjustment letter except no wrong doing as taken place. Instead, this letter is just to let the reader know that an error as been found and needs to be corrected as soon as possible. This letter is a legal document letting the reader know that something is being done to correct the problem.
Inquiry Letter An inquiry letter is written as a request for a certain something or in response to a request made by someone. The object of the inquiry letter is to get the object or material requested in the letter.Order Letter Order letters are used to order material that is running low and will be needed soon. This type of letter is commonly known as a PO (purchase order). This letter is also a legal document showing a transaction between a business and a vendor.Response Letter It is a letter written in response to another letter received by someone. The objective of this type of letter is to fulfill the request made by the person you are writing this letter to.
A sample letter Ken's Cheese House 34 Chatley Avenue Seattle, WA 98765 Tel: Fax: Email: email@example.com October 23, 2006 Fred Flintstone Sales Manager Cheese Specialists Inc. 456 Rubble Road Rockville, IL Dear Mr Flintstone: With reference to our telephone conversation today, I am writing to confirm your order for: 120 x Cheddar Deluxe Ref. No. 856 The order will be shipped within three days via UPS and should arrive at your store in about 10 days. Please contact us again if we can help in any way. Yours sincerely, Kenneth Beare Director of Ken's Cheese House
Good writing etiquette • People sometimes aren't always "aware" of the effect their writing has on others. This is especially the case with emails, when people often don't check for mistakes before they send, or just as importantly, they don't put themselves in their reader's shoes and check for "tone". • Putting yourself in your reader's shoes means you try to anticipate what your reader will think when they get your email. Can what you write be interpreted differently to your intended meaning? Does it sound rude or will it offend?
Avoid these etiquette mistakes 1. Not acknowledging emailsIf someone has taken the time and trouble to write to you, it's only polite to reply within a day or so. If you can't answer the person within this time frame, write something short to let them know you will answer more fully later. "Thanks for your email. I'll get back to you within the next day / tomorrow / next week ." If you're going on holiday and will be away for more than a few days, consider setting up an auto-responder to reply automatically to emails. 2. Not thanking someone for their work or inputIf someone has put in time to quote for a project or to give you some information, make sure you thank them. Making someone feel appreciated means that they are more likely to want to do business with you in the future. "I'm sorry you didn't get the project, but thanks for your work.""Thank you for finding me the information about X. I really appreciate your help.“ 3. Not using capital letters or proper punctuationIf you shorten words too much (would = wld; please = plse), don't punctuate your sentences, you not only appear uneducated, but you make your reader spend time trying to understand what you want to say. Neither of these things makes you look professional!