Chapter 2: How Advertising works. Dr. Nguyen Thi Gam Joint program with Daegu Cyber University- 2010. I. How advertising works as communication.
Dr. Nguyen Thi Gam
Joint program with
Daegu Cyber University- 2010
1. The Communication Model
1. The Communication Model
The interactive communication model
Attitudes and opinions
2. Advertising as communication
Effective advertising is evaluated in terms of the impact it has on the consumer response to the message.
The advertiser’s objectives are focused on the receiver’s response, they predicts the impact the message will have on the target audience. The impact is what we measure to determine whether the message met is objectives and as effective
2. Advertising as communication
In advertising, noise hinders the consumer’s reception of the message.
=> Avoid cluster and information overload
- AIDA (attention, interest, desire and action) is considered as the most common and long-standing explanation of advertising effect.
b. Think-feel-do model: is a simple model that answer to how advertising works. The idea is that advertising motivates people to think about the message, feel something about the product, and do something, such as try it or buy it. This model has been used to identify various patterns of response depending on the type of product and buying situation.
1. Perceive (reception) 4. Connect (association)
2. Understand (cognition) 5. Believe (persuasion)
3. Feel (affective/ emotion) 6. Act (behavior)
Perception is the process by which we receive information through our five senses and assign meaning to its.
2. Components of perception
Exposure (being seen or heard) is an important goal of media planners who try to find the best way to expose the target audience to the message
- The ability to draw attention, and to bring to, to a product is one of advertising’s greatest strengths.
- Receiver of the message has become mentally engaged in some way with the ad and the product
Selection and attention
Interest and relevance
Awareness: you are aware of something after having seen it or heard if before. Awareness results when an advertisement initially makes an impression
Memory- recognition: memory refers to the way people file information in their mind
Cognition refers to how consumers respond to information, learn and understand something
2. Components of cognition
Needs: are something you think about
Wants: are based on feelings and desires
Information:advertising often provides information about products (facts about product performance and features- size, price, design, …
Learning:consumers learn about products and brand through 2 primary ways: cognitive learning and conditional learning
Differentiation:keyfunction ofadvertising is differentiation of one brand from another. Consumers understand the features of a brand and be able to compare them with the features of competing products
Memory-recall:recognition is a measure of perception and recall is a measure of learning or understanding
Emotional responses reflects our feelings about something. Emotion describes st that stimulates wants, touches emotions, and creates feelings.
2. Components of emotional response
Wants: needs are seen as being more cognitive, and wants are described as influenced more by emotion and desire. Ex) you see a display of candy bars, you may want one, but that doesn’t mean you think about whether or not you need it
Emotions:which stir up our passions or feelings, appear in a number of forms in advertising (humor, love, fear). Ads that rely on arousing these feelings are referred as emotional appeals.
Liking: Liking a brand (or ad) was the best predictor of consumer’s behavior. Liking is measured in terms of two responses: liking the ad or liking the brand. You like the ad, then positive feelings will transfer to the brand.
Resonance: Advertisements that create resonance (tieng vang) (ring true) help the consumers identify with the brand on a personal level (self-identification). The women’s campaign of Nike does a good job of speaking to women in a way that address their concerns. If women identifies with this message, it is said to resonate for her. Messages that resonate provide the foundation for an enduring brand relationship
Association is communication through symbolism (process making symbolic connection between a brand and characteristics, qualities or lifestyles that represent the brand’s image and personality.
2. Components of association
- Association uses symbolism and conditional learning to make connection in a consumer’s mind between brand and certain desired qualities that define brand and make it distinctive
Symbolism: means the brand stand for a certain quality – a Rolex watch means quality
Conditional learning: explains much of the impact of advertising. People learn about a product or brand in a largely noncognitive, even nonrational way. Beer advertising directed at a young male audience often uses image of sporting events, beach parties, and good-looking women, and those image are repeated
Brand transformation: means a brand takes on meaning when it is transformed from a mere product into something special, st that is differentiated from other products in the category by virtue of its brand image and image.
Persuasion is the conscious intent on the part of the source to influence or motivate receiver of a message to believe or do something.
2. Components of persuasion
Persuasion is designed to change attitudes and behavior or build beliefs.
Attitude (positive, neutral, negative): is mental readiness to react to a situation in a given way
Argument:uses logic, reasons and proofs to make a point (giai thich de xuat) and build conviction. This complex process demands the audience “follow through” the reasoning to understand the point and reach conclusion. Because advertising deals with problems and their solutions often relies on arguments
Motivation:something (hunger, desire to be beautiful, rich) prompts a person to act in a certain way. In order to identify consumer’s level of motivation, advertising and other mrktg communication (sales promotion- gifts, prizes) to encourage people to respond
Conviction and preference: effective persuasion results in conviction, which means consumers believe something to be true. In terms of advertising effects, belief is indicated when consumers develop a preference for, or an intention to try or buy a product.
Brand loyalty: is measured both attitude (preference) and by repeat purchases, is an important response that crosses over between thinking, feeling, and doing. This response is built on customer satisfaction. If you try a product, like it, you will be more likely to buy it again.
Behavior is the action response and it can involve a number of types of action in addition to trying or buy the products
2. Components of behavior
Try and buy: objective of most mrktg program is sales, the consumers view of that is purchase. In customer-focused program, the goal is to motivate people to try a product or buy it (for nonprofit, not selling goods, but volunteer or donation )
Contact:trying and buying are what the marketer desires, but other actions are more important measure of ad’s effectiveness. Responding by making contact with the advertiser can be important sign of effectiveness (through fee toll)
Prevention: there are social-action situations where advertising message are designed to deter behavior, such as limitation of car use due to clean –air campaign and anti-smoking and anti-drug campaign for teens