Ballet History and Vocabulary GOAL: 1. TO BE ABLE TO WRITE OUT THE STEPS OF BALLET AND THE MEANING. 2. TO UNDERSTAND THE ALIGNEMNT RULES IN RELATION TO BASIC ANATOMY. 3. TO DEEPEN YOUR KNOWLEDGE OF BALLET HISTORY AND GEORGE BALANCHINE.
WHERE DID BALLET COME FROM? • 15th Century Court Dance of Italy • Henry II of France marries Catherine de Medicis of Italy. • Documentation began in 1444 in France • LouisXIIImakes first appearance as public dancer in 1651 • LouisXIIIfounds Academie Royale de la musique and ballet performances move from palace to theatre.
How did Ballet get to America? 1837 First Appearances of ballet come to America from Russia and France. • George Balanchine and Lincoln Kirstein • Begin first major school of ballet in America in 1934, the future American Ballet Theatre • 1935 Premier of “Serenade”
George Balanchine 1904-1983 St. Petersburg, Russia Balanchine created over 400 works including dances for Broadway, Hollywood movies, operas, the circus and the ballet. His range of choreography spanned the neoclassical (Agon, The Four Temperments, Symphony in Three Movements) to the story ballet (The Nutcracker, Swan Lake, Coppelia) to the romantic (Vienna Waltzes, Jewels, Symphony in C). In 1933 at the invitation of Lincoln Kirstein, he came to America and co-founded The School of American Ballet in 1934 and the New York City Ballet in 1948.
Ballet Vocabulary • DemiPlie: small bend • Cambre: arched • Grande Plie: big bend • Tendue: to touch • Degage: clear path • Rond de jambe: round with leg • Fondu: to melt • Frappe: to strike • Grand Battement: banging, slamming • Passe: to pass through • Retire: isolated • Developpe: developed • Pas de Bourreé: to cram or stuff • Balancé: to swing • Sautteé: to jump • Changement: change • échappe: slip out; escape • échappésautteé: jumping /escape • sissone: to spring
Ballet Vocabulary • Glissade: slide • Chassé: chase • Piqué: prick/sting (will be using with passé) • Jeté: to throw • Arabesque: ornament • 1st arabesque • 2nd arabesque • 3rd arabesque
12 Body Placement Rules for Ballet Technique • Head erect straight on top of spine, ears over shoulders chin up • Diaphragm lifted (breathing muscles in rib cage • Spine held straight up and lengthened • Shoulders squarely over hip • Eyes forward and focused • Pelvis centered with the hips placed directly over the feet
7. Abdomen (lower abdominal muscles) tightened and lifted8.Gluteal muscles contracted to pull down tailbone9. Thighs (quadriceps and hamstrings) pulled up with knees straight10. Feet must bear weight primarily over the metatarsals (long thin bones in the foot).11. Turn out from hip joints (ball and socket joint)12. SMILE
FIVE POSITIONS LOOK AT PAGE 24 IN THE BALLET DICTIONARY BE ABLE TO IDENTIFY THESE FOR THE TEST LET’S TRY IT OUT!
Activity • Using Ballet Dictionaries • Split in to groups of three • I read the description of the step from the dictionary and the group has to write out the name of the step, spelled correctly on a piece of paper and hold it up. The first one to get it wins.
5 Positions of the Feet • Refer to page 139 in your ballet dictionary. • Do you recognize these positions? • Where do you know them from. • What major joint of the body do we use to create these positions?