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8.1 Cornell Notes

8.1 Cornell Notes

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8.1 Cornell Notes

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  1. 8.1 Cornell Notes (These Q’s will go on Portfolio p34 & 35) • Portfolio Page 34 • What effect did the new governments created by the new state constitutions have on national politics? • Why did most of the new state constitutions create governments with separate branches? • Who had the most powers under the Articles of Confederation? • What was the United States Congress modeled after? • Portfolio Page 35 • What issues affected the Western territories between 1775 and 1787? • What did the Land Ordinance of 1785 do? • What did the Northwest Ordinance do?

  2. Shay’s Rebellion Copy this chart onto Portfolio p32 What happened? What was the cause? What was the state’s reaction? ‘Big Picture’ result?

  3. Copy this chart onto Portfolio p33 National government’s State governments’ powers powers Articles of Confederation 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3.

  4. Lesson 8.1a: The Articles of Confederation Today we will analyze the Articles of Confederation.

  5. Vocabulary • republican – form of government in which people elect the people who govern them • bill – a written paper containing a statement of details or facts • constitution – a written outline of government • establish – create or set up • ordinance – a law

  6. Check for Understanding • What are we going to do today? • Do Democrats have republican beliefs? • Why is a list of charges you have to pay the electric company called a bill? • What does it mean if the city council establishes an ordinance against raising chickens in your backyard?

  7. What We Already Know The Enlightenment spread the ideas that people had rights that came from God…and that governments should exist to protect those rights. John Locke

  8. What We Already Know For eight years, the United States fought a bitter war against a government that threatened those rights.

  9. What We Already Know During the Revolutionary War, the Continental Congress had served as the government for the United States.

  10. TRACKwith me, Rucy! • Once the American colonies declared independence, each of the states had to create its own government. • Some state governments were separated into three branches (executive, legislative, judicial), to prevent them from becoming too powerful.

  11. New State Governments • Once the American colonies declared independence, each of the states created a constitution to establish its own government. • The framers of these early state constitutions did not want to destroy the political systems that they had had as colonies. • They simply wanted to make those systems more democratic.

  12. Most states tried to make their governments more democratic. • separate branches • weaker executive branches • abolition of slavery • bill of rights

  13. New State Governments • Some states experimented with creating separate branches of government, giving different powers to different branches. • By creating separate branches, Americans hoped to prevent the government from becoming too powerful.

  14. New State Governments • Nearly all states tried to weaken the executive branch. • Terms of office were usually short, and elections were held frequently.

  15. New State Governments • Some states began passing laws gradually abolishing slavery. • In 1783 a Massachusetts court ended slavery when it ruled that “all men are born free and equal.” • By 1786 five states had abolished slavery.

  16. New State Governments • Some states included a bill of rights in their constitutions as a way to keep the government under control. • The idea of a bill of rights came from the English Bill of Rights of 1689. • This was a list of rights that the government guaranteed to English citizens.

  17. New State Governments • Not all the states had a bill of rights, and not all of them abolished slavery. • All of them did have a republican form of government. • These early state constitutions would later serve as a pattern for the U.S. Constitution.

  18. Get your whiteboards and markers ready!

  19. 1. What effect did state governments have on national politics? • They provided a solid foundation for the U.S. Constitution. • They abolished slavery everywhere. • They created constitutions that contained bills of rights. • The demanded that Congress repeal the Northwest Ordinance.

  20. What form of government did all the new states create? • republican • democratic • parliamentary • magisterial • bureaucratic

  21. 2. Why did most of the new state constitutions create governments with separate branches? • It was the way government had been organized back in England. • Separate branches would make the governments strong and effective. • Each branch could operate independently of the other two. • They wanted to prevent those govern-ments from becoming too powerful.

  22. Trackwith me: During the Revolutionary War, each state was independent, with a republican form of government. The war showed the need for the states to work together. This idea of “united we stand, divided we fall” carried on after independence was won.

  23. The Articles of Confederation • In 1776, the Continental Congress began to develop a plan for a national government. • Congress agreed that the government should be a republic, and it organized itself based on the model that the British Parliament provided.

  24. The Articles of Confederation • It was agreed that every state was given one vote, regardless of size. • Although the delegates disagreed about several issues, Congress eventually arrived at a final plan, called the Articles of Confederation.

  25. Because many Americans feared a strong government , the Articles of Confederation gave the national government few powers. • power to wage war and make peace • power to sign treaties • power to issue money • power to control Western lands

  26. The Articles of Confederation • The Articles created a government with only a legislative branch, the Congress. • Each state, large or small, had only one vote in Congress. • What was worse, with no executive branch, the national government could not enforce its own laws.

  27. The most important powers were left to the states. • to set taxes • to enforce national laws

  28. Powers of the government issue money make peace enforce laws sign treaties collect taxes wage war one vote in Congress control Western lands National government State governments wage war enforce laws make peace collect taxes sign treaties one vote in Congress issue money control Western lands

  29. Powers of the government issue money make peace enforce laws sign treaties collect taxes wage war one vote in Congress control Western lands National government State governments wage war enforce laws make peace collect taxes sign treaties one vote in Congress issue money control Western lands

  30. Get your whiteboards and markers ready!

  31. 3. Who had the most powers under the Articles of Confederation? • the national government • the state governments • Federalists • republicans

  32. 4. What was the United States Congress modeled after? • the German Reichstag • the British Parliament • the French Estates General • the Russian Duma • the Spanish Diet Choose all that are true!

  33. The Problem of Western Land One issue that had stood in the way of the ratification of the Articles of Confederation was the issue of Western land.

  34. The Problem of Western Lands Some of the smaller states had no western lands, which could be sold to pay debts left from the Revolution.

  35. The Problem of Western Lands • States without such lands to sell were at a disadvantage. • They wanted the national government to control the western states.

  36. The Problem of Western Lands • Over the next three years, the other states gave up title to the western land. • The small states finally voted to ratify the Articles.

  37. The Land Ordinance of 1785 The Ordinance established townships in what would become known as the Northwest Territory.

  38. The Land Ordinance of 1785 • It staked out six-mile square townships. • It also set aside one square-mile section of land for schools. • This was the first time the national government promoted public education.

  39. The Northwest Ordinance • It described how the Northwest Territory was to be governed. • As each territory grew in population, it would gain rights to self-government. • When there were 60,000 people, they could apply to become a new state. • This was important because it set a pattern for the orderly growth of the United States.

  40. Slavery was banned in the Northwest Territory.

  41. Religious freedom was guaranteed.

  42. Get your whiteboards and markers ready!

  43. 5. What issues affected the Western territories between 1775 and 1787? • Who would control the territories • How to divide western lands • Making peace with the Indians • How to settle the western lands • How to buy more land from foreign countries Choose all that are true!

  44. 6. What did the Land Ordinance of1785do? • The Ordinance established townships in what would become known as the Northwest Territory. • Each township was a six-mile square (36 sq. miles). • One square-mile section was set aside to earn money for schools.

  45. 7. What did the Northwest Ordinancedo? • It outlined when the territories could govern themselves. • It established settlers' rights to religious freedom. • It set a pattern for the orderly growth of the United States. • It allowed Congress to purchase land from Mexico. • It banned slavery in the Northwest Territory. Choose all that are true!

  46. Lesson 8.1b: Shays’ Rebellion Today we will explain the connection between the weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation and Shays’ Rebellion.

  47. Vocabulary levy – to establish and collect a tax or a fee strength – something you are good at weakness – something you don’t do well debt – something owed, usually money

  48. Check for Understanding What are we going to do today? What is one of your strengths? What vocabulary word describes something you owe to someone else? What vocabulary word describes the act of establishing or collecting a tax?

  49. What We Already Know When Britain threatened the rights of the colonists, farmers and merchants at Lexington and Concord rose up in arms against what they saw as injustice.

  50. What We Already Know With independence came the opportunity and responsibility to create an effective government.