February 10, 2014 • Get all handouts • Write the I can statement… I can identify the topic and controlling idea in a writing piece. • Begin Caught’ya DAY 28
Day 28 stop fidgeting young lady and sit still he ordered pauline in a menacing tone of voice. sam sagaciousambled to his new homeroom a few doors down from paulines. as he entered the rooms portal he froze mid stride
Vocabulary • Fidgeting- (verb) To behave or move nervously or restlessly. • Portal- (noun) A doorway, entrance, or gate, especially one that is large and imposing.
Controlling Idea • A good writer makes sure that topic sentences (and theses) contain clear "controlling" ideas. But, what exactly is a "controlling" idea? • A "controlling" idea is an idea that makes a reader ask a question. Any time a topic sentence has a good "controlling" idea, the reader will have his or her curiosity raised. • In effect, the reader will say (in the mind) questions such as How? or In what way? or What does that mean?
Controlling Idea Examples of good "controlling" idea topic sentences: • It is difficult to read English for someone who has used Farsi. (Why is it difficult? How is it difficult?) • Yesterday, I had an unusual experience on the bus. (What experience did you have? Why was it unusual?) Example of a topic sentence with NO "controlling" idea: • Last year, my wife and I went to visit Banff, Alberta. (A fact, but I have no questions to ask you; if you had said, "had fun in Banff," then I would have questions for you!)
Most often, the topic is easy, but the question then turns to what you want to say about the topic which is the controlling idea. Topic sentences should always contain both (1) a topic and (2) a controlling idea. • Read the following topic sentences. They all contain a topic (in red) and a controlling idea (in green). When your introduction contains a clearly stated topic sentence such as one of the following, your reader will know what to expect and, therefore, understand your ideas better. 1. People can avoid burglariesby taking certain precautions. (The precautions for…) 2. There are several advantagesto growing up in a small town. (The advantages of…) 3. Most US universities require a 550 point TOEFL scorefor a number of reasons. (The reasons for…) 4. Air pollution in Mexico City is the worst in the worldfor a number of reasons. (The causes of…) or (The effects of…) 5. Fixing a flat tire on a bicycleis easy if you follow these steps. (The steps for…)
See if you can identify the topic and the controlling idea. 6. There are several enjoyable ways to travel between the US and Queretaro. (The ways to…) or (The methods of…) 7. Animals in danger of becoming extinct come from a wide range of countries. (The different countries… [parts, kinds, types]) 8. Effective leadership requires specific qualities that anyone can develop. (The qualities (or characteristics or traits) of…) 9. Industrial waste poured into Lake Michigan has led to dramatic changes in its ability to support marine life. (The effects of…) 10. In order to fully explore the wreck of the Titanic, scientists must address several problems. (The difficulties of…) or (The obstacles to…)
Building a Paragraph Topic + Controlling Idea= Topic Sentence Supporting Detail Supporting Detail Supporting Detail Closing Sentence
Tar and nicotine are not the only harmful chemicals in cigarettes. In fact, tars account for only 8 percent of tobacco smoke. The remaining 92 percent consists of various gases, the most dangerous of which is carbon monoxide. In tobacco smoke, the concentration of carbon monoxide is 800 times higher than the level considered safe by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In the human body, carbon monoxide reduces the oxygen-carrying capacity of the red blood cells by binding with the receptor sites for oxygen. This causes oxygen deprivation in many body tissues. —Health: the Basics, Fifth Edition, by Rebecca J. Donatelle
Your turn… Fill in your graphic organizer for one of the following topic sentences. • Effective leadership requires specific qualities that anyone can develop. (The qualities (or characteristics or traits) of…) • There are several advantages to growing up in a small town. (The advantages of…)
Exit Ticket Now, put the information from your graphic organizer into a paragraph. Don’t forget transition words and phrases!