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Reality Therapy. Chapter 8. The Case of Donald. 31-year-old separated Caucasian male Seeking counseling due to job loss and marital problems Complains of weariness, nausea, migraines Wants to know “what is wrong” with him. Basic Philosophy. Positive view of human nature Constructivist

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the case of donald
The Case of Donald

31-year-old separated Caucasian male

Seeking counseling due to job loss and marital problems

Complains of weariness, nausea, migraines

Wants to know “what is wrong” with him

basic philosophy
Basic Philosophy

Positive view of human nature

Constructivist

People choose their behaviors

human motivation
Human Motivation

Satisfaction of basic needs

Maximize pleasure and minimize pain

central constructs
Central Constructs

Basic Needs

Quality World

Total Behavior

Choice Theory

External Control Psychology

theory of the person
Theory of the Person

Personality is based on the strength of the human’s needs

No formal theory of personality development

Personality does not change

psychological health and dysfunction
Health

Advocates of choice theory

Able to satisfy own needs without violating rights of others

Enjoy satisfying inter-personal relationships

Dysfunction

Failure to satisfy needs

Lack of belonging

Chooses painful and destructive behaviors

Controls negative feelings

A way to get help

Avoids more difficult alternatives

Psychological Health and Dysfunction
nature of therapy
Nature of Therapy

Assessment

Therapeutic Atmosphere

Role of the Client

Role of the Counselor

Goals

process of therapy
Process of Therapy

Present Oriented

Focused on what can change

WDEP

Examine client’s behaviors that are problematic

Improve problematic behaviors so that needs are still or more effectively met

process of therapy10
Therapeutic Techniques

Questioning

Bibliotherapy

Doing the unexpected

Reframing

Humor

Therapeutic Techniques

Self-disclosure

Metaphors

Physical activity and meditation

Allowing or imposing consequences

Process of Therapy
evaluation
Evaluation

Qualities

Precision

Testability

Empirical validity

Research Support

Outcome research

Theory-testing research

issues of individual and cultural diversity
Pros

Acknowledgement of the cultural influence on the Quality World

Cons

Focus on heterosexual relationships

Emphasis on personal choice

Definition of basic needs

Issues of Individual and Cultural Diversity