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Joints and Bone Injuries. Articular System. Series of joints that allow for movement of the human body Joint articulation Two bones come into contact May be immoveable, slightly moveable, or freely moveable Arthrology is the study of joint structure and function Types of joints

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articular system
Articular System
  • Series of joints that allow for movement of the human body
  • Joint articulation
    • Two bones come into contact
    • May be immoveable, slightly moveable, or freely moveable
  • Arthrology is the study of joint structure and function
  • Types of joints
    • Synarthroses – immovable
    • Amphiarthroses – slightly moveable
    • Diarthroses – freely moveable
synarthroses
Synarthroses
  • Lack a synovial cavity
  • Held together by fibrous connective tissue
  • Sutures
    • Ex. Joints between skull bones
    • Fuse together after birth
slide4

Syndesmoses

    • Connected by ligaments are very slightly moveable
    • Ex. between the tibia and the fibula
slide5

Gomphoses

    • Joint which a conical process fits into a socket and is held by ligaments
    • ex. teeth held to the jaw bones
amphiarthroses
Amphiarthroses
  • Connected by hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage
    • Ex. Ribs connected to sternum
    • Ex. Between pubic bones
diarthroses synovial joints
Diarthroses(synovial joints)
  • Ends of bones are covered with articular cartilage and separated by the joint cavity
  • Within joint is a capsule
    • Outer layer is made of ligaments
    • Inner layer is a synovial membrane that secretes synovial fluid for lubrication
types of diarthroses joints
Types of Diarthrosesjoints
  • Pivot joint
    • Bone moves around a central axis
    • Ex. joint between the radius and ulna of the lower arm
slide10
Gliding joint
    • Bones move in a sliding motion
    • Ex. between the carpals in the hand
slide11
Hinge joint
    • Allows only flexion and extension
    • Ex. the knee and elbow
slide12
Condyloid or ellipsoidal joint
    • Bones can move in many directions but cannot rotate
    • Ex. between the metatarsals and the phalanges
slide13
Saddle joint
    • Two bones have both concave and convex regions
    • Allows the thumb to touch each of the fingertips
    • Ex. the thumb
slide14
Ball – and – socket joint
    • Bone’s rounded end fits into a concave cavity on another bone
    • Provides the widest range of motion possible
    • Ex. femur connecting to the hip bones
joint injuries
Joint Injuries

Subluxation

  • Occurs when bone displaces, then returns to normal position

Dislocation

  • Occurs when significant force displaces bone so that the two bone ends in a joint no longer add up
movements of diarthroses
Movements of Diarthroses
  • Flexion
  • Extension
  • Hyperextension
  • Abduction
  • Adduction
  • Rotation
  • Circumduction
  • Supination
  • Pronation
  • Plantar flexion
  • Dorsiflexion
  • Inversion
  • Eversion
  • Protraction
  • Retraction
  • Elevation
  • Depression
  • Internal Rotation
  • External Rotation
  • Radial Deviation
  • Ulnar Deviation
  • Opposition
flexion extension
Flexion/Extension
  • Flexion
    • Decreases the angle between 2 bones
  • Extension
    • Increases the angle between two bones
slide19

Hyperextension

    • Movement that increases the angle between two bones extends beyond the normal range of motion
abduction adduction
Abduction/Adduction
  • Abduction
    • Describes movements of the limbs only
    • The limb moves away from the midline of the body
  • Adduction
    • Describes movements of the limbs only
    • The limb moves toward from the midline of the body
slide22
Rotation
    • Movement that occurs when a bone turns on its axis toward or away from the midline of the body, in the limbs, or between the 1st and 2nd vertebrae of the spine
  • Circumduction
    • The ability of a limb to move in a circular path around an axis
slide24
Supination
    • The action of turning the palm upward
    • Performed by lateral rotation of the forearm
  • Pronation
    • The action of turning the palm downward
    • Performed by medial rotation of the forearm
plantar flexion dorsiflexion
Plantar Flexion/Dorsiflexion
  • Plantar Flexion
    • Movement that extends the foot
    • Pointing toes downwards
  • Dorsiflexion
    • Movement that flexes the foot
    • Brings toes up toward the lower leg
slide29
Inversion
    • Movement that turns the sole of the foot medially
  • Eversion
    • Movement that turns the sole of the foot laterally
protraction retraction
Protraction/Retraction
  • Protraction
    • Moving the body part forward
  • Retraction
    • Moving the body part backward
  • Both movements occur in the transverse plane
  • Only performed with the shoulder and mandible
elevation depression
Elevation/Depression
  • Elevation
    • Movement that lifts the body part superiorly
  • Depression
    • Movement of the body part inferiorly
  • Elevation and Depression occur in the frontal plane
internal external rotation
Internal/External Rotation
  • Internal rotation
    • Movement that occurs when the anterior surface moves toward the midline
    • aka medial rotation
  • External rotation
    • Movement that occurs when the anterior surface moves away from the midline
    • aka lateral rotation
hand movements
Hand Movements
  • Radial Deviation
    • Hand moves laterally towards the thumb side
  • Ulnar Deviation
    • Hand moves medially toward the little finger
  • Opposition
    • Moves the thumb to touch the tips of the other fingers
joints of upper extremity
Joints of Upper Extremity
  • Shoulder Joint
    • Glenohumeral
    • Sternoclavicular
    • Acromioclavicular
  • Elbow Joint
    • Radiohumeral
    • Humeroulnar
    • Radioulnar
  • Wrist
    • Radiocarpal
    • Intercarpal
    • Carpalmetacarpal
  • Hand
    • Intermetacarpal
    • Metacarpalphalangeal
    • Interphalangeal
shoulder
Shoulder
  • Glenohumeral
  • Sternoclavicular
  • Acromioclavicular

Glenohumeral joint

elbow
Elbow
  • Radiohumeral
  • Humeroulnar
  • Radioulnar
wrist
Wrist
  • Radiocarpal
  • Intercarpal
  • Carpalmetacarpal
slide48
Hand
  • Intermetacarpal
  • Metacarpalphalangeal
  • Interphalangeal
joints of lower extremity
Joints of Lower Extremity
  • Sacroiliac
  • Acetabulofemoral
  • Patellofemoral
  • Tibiofemoral
  • Tibiofibular
  • Ankle/Foot
    • Talocural
    • Subtalar
    • Intertarsal
    • Tarsometatarsal
    • Intermetatarsal
    • Metatasophalangel
    • Interphalangeal
slide51
Tibiofemoral joint

TIBIOFIBULAR JOINT

synovial joint injuries
Synovial Joint Injuries
  • Acute
    • Sprains
    • Synovitis
    • Subluxations
    • Dislocations
  • Chronic
    • Osteochondrosis
    • Arthritis
    • Bursitis
    • Capsulitis/synovitis
sprains
Sprains
  • Injury to ligamentous and capsular tissue
  • Traumatic joint twist that results in stretching of total tearing of the stabilizing connective tissue
  • One of most common & disabling sports injuries
  • General Symptoms:
    • Joint swelling
    • Local temperature increase
    • Pain
    • Point tenderness
    • Skin discoloration
sprains1
Sprains
  • Grade 1
    • Some pain
    • Minimum LOF
    • Mild point tenderness
    • Little or not swelling
    • No abnormal motion
  • Grade 2
    • Pain
    • Moderate LOF
    • Swelling
    • Slight to moderate instability
  • Grade 3
    • Severe sprain
    • Extremely painful initially
    • LOF
    • Severe instability
    • Tenderness
    • Swelling
          • May represent subluxation that reduced spontaneously
synovitis
Synovitis
  • Irritation of synovial membrane
  • Causes increase in fluid production, swelling
  • Joint pain during motion, skin sensitivity from pressure
  • Diminish in few days
acute joint injuries
Acute Joint Injuries

Subluxation

  • Occurs when bone displaces, then returns to normal position

Dislocation

  • Occurs when significant force displaces bone so that the two bone ends in a joint no longer add up
osteochondrosis
Osteochondrosis
  • Degenerative changes in the ossification centers of the epiphysis of bones
  • During periods of rapid growth in children
  • Osteochondritis dissecans
  • Suggested causes—
    • aseptic necrosis: circulation to epiphysis disrupted
    • Trauma causes particles of articular cartilage to fx, resulting in fissures that penetrate to subchondral bone
arthritis
Arthritis
  • Inflammation of an entire joint
  • Usually involves all tissues of the joint
  • Most often in WB joints
  • 100 varieties of arthritis
  • 10% population
  • No cure
rheumatoid arthritis
Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • Connective tissue disorder resulting in severe inflammation of small joints
  • Cause unknown
  • Severely debilitating
  • Synovial membranes of joint and connective tissues grow abnormally to form layer in joint capsules destroys cartilage and fuses bones of joint
bursitis
Bursitis
  • Inflammation of the synovial cavity caused by excessive stress or tension
open closed kinematic chains
Open & Closed Kinematic Chains
  • Open Kinematic Chain
    • Sequence of action in which the body part farthest from the trunk is free during movement
    • i.e. Seated leg extension
  • Closed Kinematic Chain
    • Sequence of action in which the body part farthest from the trunk is fixed during movement
    • i.e. In a squat, feet are fixed and the rest of leg chain moves