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Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries

Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries

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Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries

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  1. Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries Module 5

  2. Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries • Skeletal system • Fractures • Dislocation • Sprain and strains

  3. Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries Femur Tibia Fibula The Skeletal System

  4. Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries • Function • Body framework • Support muscles, blood vessels, and nerves • Protects vital organs such as heart, lungs, and the brain

  5. Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries • Fracture • Break or crack in a bone • Category • Closed fracture • Skin is not broken • Open fracture • Bone is exposed at the surface of skin

  6. Bone, Joint, and Muscle InjuriesFracture • Types • Simple fracture • Bone is broken • Compound fracture • Bone and tissue damage • Complicated fracture • Broken bone damage organ

  7. Bone, Joint, and Muscle InjuriesFracture • Signs and symptoms • Deformity, swelling and bruise on the fractured site • Pain, and difficulty in moving • Shortening, bending, or limb twisted • Coarse grating heard or felt at bone ends • Loss of function • An open wound

  8. Bone, Joint, and Muscle InjuriesFracture • First aid treatment • Instruct the casualty not to move • Check for bleeding • Check for shock • Reassure the casualty • Immobilize and support the fracture • Immobilization • Use of bandages • Use of splints • Combination of the above

  9. Bone, Joint, and Muscle InjuriesFracture • Monitoring after immobilization • Check fingers or toes for discoloration • Pulse check • Arrange for transport to medical facilities • Precaution • Do not allow the casualty to eat, drink or smoke. • Do not move the casualty until the affected part is immobilized unless there is immediate danger. • Do not press down directly on the protruding bone end

  10. Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries • Fractured Rib Cage • Specific signs and symptoms • Pain on taking a deep breath, cough or laugh • Shallow breathing • Open wound over fracture, sucking sound heard in the chest cavity

  11. Bone, Joint, and Muscle InjuriesFractured Rib Cage • Specific first aid treatment • Penetrating chest wound, seal wound • Support the arm on the affected site with an elevation sling • Precaution • Place casualty in the recovery position on his injured site allowing the uninjured side for full capacity breathing

  12. Bone, Joint, and Muscle InjuriesSpinal Injury • Causes • Falling from a height • Hitting the bottom of a shallow pool through diving • Thrown from a motorbike or horse • Sudden slowing in a motor vehicle • Heavy object falling across the back • Injury to the face or the head

  13. Bone, Joint, and Muscle InjuriesSpinal Injury • Signs and symptoms • Deformity in the normal curvature of the spine • Tenderness over the skin of the spine • Loss of control over limbs, movement maybe weak or absent • Loss of sensation • Abnormal sensation such as tingling or burning • Loss of bladder or bowel function • Breathing difficulties

  14. Bone, Joint, and Muscle InjuriesSpinal Injury • Treatment • Reassure casualty, instruct not to move • Steady the affected part by supporting the head • No unnecessary movement • Apply jaw-thrust for unconscious casualty to open the airway • Call for ambulance • Monitor pulse, breathing and level of response

  15. Bone, Joint, and Muscle InjuriesSpinal Injury • Precaution • Adopt log-roll technique if the casualty has to be moved • Do not move the casualty from his original position unless there is immediate danger (To demonstrate log-roll technique)

  16. Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries • Immobilization Instructor to demonstrate, participants to practice Fracture of radius & ulna Injured elbow Fracture of Humerus

  17. Bone, Joint, and Muscle InjuriesImmobilization • Immobilization of the lower limb Instructor to demonstrate, participants to practice

  18. Bone, Joint, and Muscle InjuriesImmobilization Fracture of Femur

  19. Bone, Joint, and Muscle InjuriesImmobilization Fracture of Knee-cap

  20. Bone, Joint, and Muscle InjuriesImmobilization Fracture of Bones of foot Fracture of Bones of hand

  21. Bone, Joint, and Muscle InjuriesImmobilization • Splintless method of immobilization Elbow Fracture (original position) Collar Bone Fracture Forearm Fracture

  22. Bone, Joint, and Muscle InjuriesImmobilization • Improvisation • In the absence of triangular bandage any elongated item can be used e.g cloth,belts. • Precaution •  Monitor the blood circulation regularly at the extremities of limbs i.e toes and thumb. • Readjust the bandage when there is indication of increased tightness.

  23. Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries • Joints • Place at which one bone meets another • Joined by ligaments • Dislocated joint • Joint injury in which the bones are partially or completely pulled out of position • Cause • Violent muscle contraction • Violent twisting

  24. Bone, Joint, and Muscle InjuriesDislocation • Signs and symptoms • Pain • Limited movement • Shortening, bending or twisting of the area • Treatment • Immobilize the affected area • Support the affected area after it has been immobilized • Check for pulse and respiration • Check for circulation at the fingers or toes every 10 mins

  25. Bone, Joint, and Muscle InjuriesDislocation • Precaution • Do not reposition a dislocated bone into it’s socket, it may cause more injury • Do not move the affected part before immobilization • Do not allow the casualty to eat and drink

  26. Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries • Sprains and Strains • A sprain is a joint injury in which some of the fibres of a supporting ligament are ruptured but the continuity of the ligament remains intact. • A strain is an overstretching of some part of the musculature • No dislocation is involved in sprains and strains

  27. Bone, Joint, and Muscle InjuriesSprains and Strains • Signs and symptoms • Limited movement in the joints • Pain and tenderness • Swelling and bruising

  28. Bone, Joint, and Muscle InjuriesSprains and Strains Treatment RICE Rest Ice (<10 mins) Compression Elevation

  29. Bone, Joint, and Muscle InjuriesSprains and Strains • Precaution • Ice should be wrapped in a cloth before applying and should not exceed more than 10 minutes at one application • Check circulation every 10 minutes after bandage had been applied

  30. The End Module 5 Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries For training purpose only . Not for sale