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Unit 10. Words Can Give You Power. I. Warm-up activities. Discuss the following questions: 1. Why do we need to enlarge our vocabulary? 2. How do we enlarge our vocabulary?. II. Essay Structures. Part 1 (Para 1) Introduction: importance of vocabulary development

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unit 10

Unit 10

Words Can Give You Power

i warm up activities
I. Warm-up activities

Discuss the following questions:

  • 1. Why do we need to enlarge our vocabulary?
  • 2. How do we enlarge our vocabulary?
ii essay structures
II. Essay Structures
  • Part 1 (Para 1)

Introduction: importance of vocabulary development

  • Part 2 (Paras 2--4)

Development: power of vocabulary in one's economic, academic and social life

slide4
Part 3 (Paras 5--6)

Development: suggestions for vocabulary improvement through reading

  • Part 4 (Para 7)

Conclusion: one's vocabulary has a great impact on one's life

iii language points 1 impressive
III. Language points1. impressive

adj. making a strong or vivid impression; striking or remarkable:

e.g. an impressive ceremony

an impressive Olympic Games

  • impressivelyadv.
  • impressivenessn.
impress vt
impress Vt.

1) to affect strongly, often favorably:

使感动; 强烈地且经常是有利地影响

e.g.

I wrote down whatever impressed me during the journey.

I was impressed by the child's sincerity.

slide7
2) to produce or attempt to produce a vivid impression or image of… 使铭记

e.g.

a scene that impressed itself on his memory

在他记忆中留下深刻印象的景象

try to impress the value of money on the students. 试图让学生对钱的价值有个印象

  • My father impressed on me the value of hard work.
slide8
3) to mark or stamp with or as if with pressure 压印,把…压入

e.g.

impress a design on the hot wax

在热蜡上加盖设计图案

impress a mark on [upon] a surface

= impress a surface with a mark

在表面上打记号

slide9
impress n.

盖印, 印记, 记号; 铭刻;印象, 痕迹, 特征

  • the impress of one's personality

一个人的性格特征

  • Time has left its impress upon him.

时代给他留下了痕迹。

  • bear the impress of genius 带有天才的痕迹

impression n.

slide10
Translate the following into Chinese:

1. I got the impression (that) they'd just had an argument.

2. The police found an impression of a shoe in the mud.

3. the second impression of the second edition

4. He gave an impression of the minister, which made us all laugh.

5. What I said made practically no impression on him.

slide11
Keys:

1) 我感到他们刚刚争论过。

2) 警察发现一只鞋在泥地上的压痕

3) 再版第二次印刷

4) 他模仿那位部长令我们大家发笑。

5) 我的话对他简直不起作用。

2 characteristic
2. characteristic

n. [C] a typical or noticeable quality 特点

e.g. We inherit from our parents many of our physical characteristics.

There are a number of distinguishing characteristics by which you can identify a Hollywood epic.

slide13
adj. typical; representing a person’s or thing’s usual character

典型的,表现人或物的特性的

e.g. Hostility towards outsiders is characteristic of both human and non-human animals.

Sentimentality seems to be a characteristic feature of all the writers of that period.

characteristically adv.

He replied in characteristically robust style.

slide14
characterize Vt.

1) to be typical of… 是…的特性

e.g. This kind of behavior characterizes the criminal mind. 这种举止是罪犯的心理特征。

A bold use of colour characterizes the bedroom.

This election campaign has been characterized by violence.

slide15
2) to describe the character of …

描述…的性格或特征

e.g. She characterized him as lazy and selfish.

Both companies have characterized the relationship as friendly.

characterizationn. = description

e.g. Shakespeare’s ~ of Shylock

3 common
3. common
  • adj.

1. belonging equally to or shared equally by two or more; joint 共同的,共有的

e.g.

common interests 共同利益

This useful feature is common to both these computers.

These characteristics are common to both animals.

slide17
2. found or happening often; usual; 常见 的,平常的,普遍的

the common occurrence 常发生的事

most common causes of heart disease

  • 3. of no special quality, of the ordinary type 平凡的,一般的

a common sailor 一位普通的水手

a cure for the common cold

slide18
4. (derog.) rough in manner or appearance and of low social class; vulgar

粗俗的,粗野的

a common-looking woman

a behavior that branded him as common.

在他身上打下烙印的粗俗行为

slide19
Phrases:

common sense常识

have …in common

The oboe(双簧管) and the clarinet(单簧管) have got certain features in common.

He had very little in common with his sister.(= share little interests or experiences.)

4 grasp
4. grasp
  • V.t.

1) to take hold of or seize firmly, esp. with the hands 抓牢,抓紧

e.g. Grasp the rope with both hands.

2) to succeed in understanding 理解,领会

e.g. grasp an argument /a person's meaning领会论点[某人的意思]

slide21
3) to try or be eager to take 渴望抓住,

e.g. grasp an opportunity

grasp at sth. : reach for; try to take or hold 企图抓到;向…伸手

e.g. grasp at any opportunity

A man who grasps at too much may lose everything.

贪得无厌的人, 可能毫无所得。

slide22
n. 紧握,紧抱;能力所及,把握,掌握;理解力;(lit.) 控制,支配

Consider the meanings of “grasp”:

1) I kept her hand in my grasp.

2) Victory in the election was within her grasp. 她在选举中稳操胜券。

3) Success is within our grasp.

4) This theory is beyond my grasp.

5) She seems to have a good grasp of the theory.

6) Germany was once in the grasp of Nazis.

slide23
keep a firm grasp on… 抓紧
  • Grasp all, lose all. [谚]贪多必失。

graspable adj. 能理解的, 可以懂的

5 predict
5. predict
  • Vt. & Vi. to state, tell about, or make known in advance, especially on the basis of special knowledge. 预言,预告,预见

e.g.

They predict rain for tomorrow.

It is hard to predict what will happen next.

slide25
predictable adj. 可预言[报]的

unpredictable adj.

  • predictably adv.

e.g. Predictably, he was late.

  • predictability n.
  • predictive adj. 预言性的; 前兆的
slide26
prediction n.

His prediction proved to be correct.

He made a prediction about the winner of the football game.

He made a prediction that the sale of the company will increase next year.

6 determine vt vi
6. determine Vt. & Vi.

Figure out the meanings of “determine” in the following sentences:

1) He determinedto tell the journalist what he knew about the accident.

2) His advice determined me to drink and smoke no more.

3) The court determined that he was guilty of murder.

slide28
4) The management committee determines departmental policy.

5) The police are trying to determine the cause of the accident.

6) Demand determines production.

slide29
Meaningsof “determine” as Vt.:

1)& 2) to (cause to) form a firm intention or decision (使)下决心; (使)作出决定

3) to end or decide, as by judicial action. 裁定

4)& 5) to establish or find out exactly, as after consideration, investigation, or calculation.

确定,测定

6) to be the cause of; regulate 限定,支配;规定,决定

useful expressions
Useful expressions
  • be determined to do sth. 决心做某事
  • determine on/upon (doing) sth 决定
  • determine sb. against sth.

使 某人决定不做某事

  • determine sb. to do sth.

使某人决定做某事

slide31
determined adj. 坚决的,决意的,

有决心的

e.g.

He is a very determined and strong-willed person.

They are determined to continue working when they reach retirement age.

Sandra was determined to become a doctor and her persistence paid off.

slide32
determination n. 决心;决定,确定,测定

e.g. They approached the task with determination and energy.

The choice of a foster home was left to the determination of the court.

The Chancellor emphasized his determination to promote openness and transparency in the Government's economic decision-making.

7 impact
7. impact

n.

1) a sudden and powerful effect that sth. has on a situation, process, or person 影响,作用

e.g. They say they expect the meeting to have a marked impact on the future of the country.

When an executive comes into a new job, he wants to quickly make an impact.

slide34
2) the force of one object hitting another

冲击力,撞击力

on impact: at the moment of hitting 碰撞时

e.g.

The plane is destroyed, a complete wreck: the pilot must have died on impact.

The cup hit the wall and broke on impact.

slide35
Vt. & Vi.

1) affect 冲击,对…有影响

e.g. Such schemes mean little unless they impact on people.

...the potential for women to impact the political process.

2) hit with great force (fml) 撞击

e.g. the sharp tinkle of metal impacting on stone

When a large object impacts the Earth, it makes a crater.

8 represent vt
8. represent Vt.

1) act or speak officially for someone 代表

e.g. The general secretary may represent the president at some official ceremonies.

The museum had several paintings representing the artist's early style.

2) be a picture or statue of; show 描绘, 表现

This painting represents a hunting scene.

slide37
3) be a sign of , stand for 象征, 表示

A dove represents peace.

The bald eagle represents the United States.

Letters of the alphabet represents sounds.

4) be 是, 意味着, 相当于

This essay represents a considerable improvement on your recent work.

slide38
represent sth to sb. : (fml) to express or point out to sb. often angrily or complainingly 愤怒地指出,抱怨地表示

e.g. You should represent your complaints to the management. 向管理层陈述不满

represent …..as/ to be …

把...描绘成….;声称

e.g. He represented himself as/to be a friend of the workers, but now we know the truth.

slide39
representativen. & adj.

be representative of the people 代表人民

Are your opinion representative of those of other students?

  • a legal [personal] representative

遗嘱执行人, 法定代理人; 合法代表

  • the house of Representatives

(美国及日本的)众议院

slide40
representation

n. 代表; 描绘,象征

e.g. a coded representation 代码

a symbolic representation

象征性的图象, 象征物

This painting is a representation of a storm at sea. 这幅画描绘的是海上的暴风雨。

They made representations (=complaints) to the management about the working conditions.