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Unit 10. Ecology Energy, Cycles, & Human Impact. Where does most of the energy in an ecosystem originate from?. The sun is the main energy source for life on earth!. How do organisms get their energy?. There are 2 ways:

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unit 10

Unit 10

Ecology

Energy, Cycles, & Human Impact

where does most of the energy in an ecosystem originate from
Where does most of the energy in an ecosystem originate from?

The sunis the main energy source for life on earth!

how do organisms get their energy
How do organisms get their energy?

There are 2 ways:

1. Autotrophs: Organism that captures energy from sunlight or inorganic substances to produce its own food; also called producers.

how do organisms get their energy1
How do organisms get their energy?

There are 2 ways:

2. Heterotrophs: Organism that cannot make its own food and gets its nutrients and energy requirements by feeding on other organisms; also called consumers.

what are 6 different types of consumers2
What are 6 different types of consumers?

Omnivores: Eat plants & meat

what are 6 different types of consumers3
What are 6 different types of consumers?

Detritivore: Eat organic matter/poop – detritus

what are 6 different types of consumers4
What are 6 different types of consumers?

Scavenger: Eats animals that are already dead.

what are 6 different types of consumers5
What are 6 different types of consumers?

Decomposers: Breaks down all the rest

(bones, feathers, dead trees…)

what is the difference between a food chain food web
What is the difference between a food chain & food web?

Food Chain: A simple model that shows how energy flows through an ecosystem.

what is the difference between a food chain food web1
What is the difference between a food chain & food web?

Food Web: A model representing the MANY interconnected food chains and pathways in which energy flows through a group of organisms.

what are trophic levels
What are trophic levels?

Each step in a food chain/web is called atrophic level.

what are ecological pyramids
What are ecological pyramids?

Ecological Pyramid: Another model used to show how energy flows through ecosystems.

Can show:

* Amount of Energy

* Amount of Biomass

* Number of organisms

what are ecological pyramids1
What are ecological pyramids?

Ecological Pyramid: Another model used to show how energy flows through ecosystems.

What is this one showing?

* Amount of Energy

* Amount of Biomass

* Number of organisms

what are ecological pyramids2
What are ecological pyramids?

What is this one showing?

* Amount of Energy

* Amount of Biomass

* Number of organisms

Biomass: The total mass of living matter at each trophic level.

what are ecological pyramids3
What are ecological pyramids?

What is this one showing?

* Amount of Energy

* Amount of Biomass

* Number of organisms

what is the 1 10 th rule
What is the 1/10th Rule?

* The reason that each trophic level can support only 1/10 of the amount of living tissue as the level below it is because each trophic level harvests only about one tenth of the energy from the level below.

  • The rest of the energy (90%) is LOST as HEAT
    • Running ● Hunting for food
    • Breathing ● Sleeping
    • Reproducing ● Maintaining body heat

* Only 10% of energy moves up to the next trophic level

what is the 1 10 th rule1
What is the 1/10th Rule?

10% RULE:

Only 10% of the energy at one trophic level moves up to the next trophic level. The other 90% is lost as heat.

90% Lost

1 J

10 J

100 J

1,000 J

10,000 J

100,000 J

what are 4 different types of cycles in the biosphere
What are 4 different types of cycles in the biosphere?

Biogeochemical Cycle: Cycles that involves organisms (bio), geological processes (geo), and chemical processes (chemical).

4 Main Types:

* Water Cycle

* Carbon Cycle

* Nitrogen Cycle

* Phosphorus Cycle

Nutrient: Is a chemical substance that an organism obtains from the environment to sustain life.

what is the water cycle
What is the Water Cycle?

Transpiration: When water evaporates from the surface of plants.

Water is constantly evaporating into the atmosphere from bodies of water, soil, & organisms.

what is the carbon cycle
What is the Carbon Cycle?

* All living things have carbon in them.

* Carbon is in proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids.

* Carbon dioxide is used by plants to make energy (carbohydrates)

* Carbon is released into the atmosphere when we burn fossil fuels.

* Carbon can be trapped in the ground as coal, oil, and gas deposits

what is the nitrogen cycle
What is the Nitrogen Cycle?

Nitrogen Fixation: Process in which nitrogen gas is captured and converted into a form plants can use (nitrates)

Most of the atmosphere has Nitrogen in it (78%)

Organisms CAN’T use Nitrogen GAS!!...so it needs to be “fixed”

“Fixing” nitrogen, is turning it from a gas into NITRATES (usable)

how is nitrogen fixed
How is Nitrogen “fixed”?
  • There are 2 main ways to “Fix” nitrogen
  • Lightning changes nitrogen gas into nitrates
how is nitrogen fixed1
How is Nitrogen “fixed”?

There are 2 main ways to “Fix” nitrogen

2. Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria changes gas into nitrates

Found on roots of Legums only!

* Peanuts

* Peas

* Clover

* Beans

* and many more…

what is the phosphorus cycle
What is the Phosphorus Cycle?
  • Phosphorus is essential for growth & development
  • When organisms poop or die, they return phosphorus
  • back to the cycle.
can there be too much of a good thing
Can there be too much of a good thing?
  • YES!

Eutrophication: Occurs when fertilizers, animal waste, sewage, or other substances rich in Nitrogen & Phosphorous flows into waterways, causing algae growth.

what is biomagnification
What is biomagnification?

Biological Magnification: Is the increasing concentration of toxic substances in organisms as trophic levels increase in a food chain or food web.

what is an example of the use of a toxin that caused biomagnification
What is an example of the use of a toxin that caused biomagnification?
  • DDT: A pesticide used between the 1940s - 1970s
slide30

What is an example of the use of a toxin that caused biomagnification?

  • We sprayed DDT EVERYWHERE!
slide31

What is an example of the use of a toxin that caused biomagnification?

  • DDT causes bird eggs to be brittle, and break when parents try to sit on them to incubate them
acid rain
Acid Rain
  • When fossil fuels are burned in industrial processes, sulfur dioxide is released into the atmosphere.
  • Automobile exhaust releases nitrogen oxides into the air.
  • In the atmosphere, these compounds react with water to form sulfuric acid & nitric acid, which eventually fall back to earth in the form of “acid rain”.
habitat destruction
Habitat Destruction
  • Clearing land for development
    • For example, deforestation of tropical rain forests.
introduced invasive species
Introduced (Invasive) Species
  • Southeastern US
    • Examples: Fire ants, Kudzu
  • Great Lakes region
    • Example: Zebra Mussels
global warming1
Global Warming
  • Increased carbon emissions from vehicles, industrial pollution, power generating plants have increased the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
  • This has occurred since the Industrial Revolution, but has recently seemed to speed up.
  • Is this just part of a natural cycle, or will it keep going?
ice cores
Ice Cores
  • Ice cores provide information on CO2 levels from the past.
slide44

What is ecological succession?

Ecological Succession- The series of changes that occur in a community over time.

slide46

What are the 2 types of

ecological succession?

1stPrimarySuccession– Occurs when there was no soil for regular plants to grow.

Examples: Volcano eruptions & glaciers retreating

slide47

What are the 2 types of

ecological succession?

Volcanoes can create new islands...

No soil is

Available for plants to grow

slide48

What are the 2 types of

ecological succession?

When glaciers retreat, they leave exposed rock…

No soil for plants to grow in.

slide49

How is soil created so plants can grow in the area?

Pioneer Species: A species that will colonize previously uncolonized land. Are organisms that colonize barren rock or lava during ecological succession. They are the FIRST to arrive!

They physically break up the rocks, extract minerals, and provide organic matter that will decompose and become the soil for later successional species.

slide50

How is soil created so plants can grow in the area?

Example: Lichens

Lichens: A symbiotic relationship between a fungus and an algae.

slide51

How is soil created so plants can grow in the area?

Lichens help break rocks to form soil so that other plants can grow there later.

slide52

What is a climax community?

Climax Community: Stable, mature ecological community with little change in the composition of species. This is when the community reaches equilibrium, and change very little over time.

slide53

What are the 2 types of ecological succession?

2ndSecondary Succession: Orderly change that occurs in a place soil remains after a community of organisms has been removed.

slide54

What are the 2 types of ecological succession?

  • When a disturbance changes a community without removing the soil, secondary succession will follow.
slide55

What are some examples of secondary succession?

  • Examples of Secondary Succession
    • Forest Fire
    • Farm land
    • Flood
    • Hurricane
    • Logging

Occurs after a climax community has been destroyed…

soil is already there.