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Petar Kehayov & Reeli Torn University of Tartu. Modal verbs in Balto-Finnic. Types of modality The inventory of modal verbs in Balto-Finnic Grammaticalization parameters Language contact. Key issues. Modality types (van der Auwera & Plungian 1998). Possibility. Non-epistemic possibility.

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Petar kehayov reeli torn university of tartu

Petar Kehayov & Reeli Torn

University of Tartu

Modal verbs in Balto-Finnic


Modal verbs in balto finnic

Types of modality

The inventory of modal verbs in Balto-Finnic

Grammaticalization parameters

Language contact

Key issues


Modality types van der auwera plungian 1998
Modality types (van der Auwera & Plungian 1998)

Possibility

Non-epistemic possibility

Epistemic possibility (uncertainty)

Participant-internal possibility (Dynamic possibility, Ability)

Participant-external possibility

Non-deontic possibility

Deontic possibility (Permission)

Participant-internal necessity (Need)

Non-deontic necessity

Deontic necessity (Obligation)

Epistemic necessity (Probability)

Participant-external necessity

Non-epistemic necessity

Necessity


The inventory of modal verbs in balto finnic
The inventory of modal verbs in Balto-Finnic

POSSIBILITY

NECESSITY

in all 7 languages

täytyä

in  5 languages

lie-

in  3 languages

pitää

voida

saada

tulla

tarvita


The premodal meanings of these core verbs
The premodal meanings of these core verbs

voida

‘to be able/capable’ < *‘to be strong’ (Saukkonen 1966: 74–75)

saada

‘to get’ <*‘to come’ (Saukkonen 1966: 5)

pitää

‘to seize; to hold’ (Saukkonen 1965: 113; Laitinen 1992: 137)

tulla

‘to come’

täytyä

‘to get filled; to suffice’ (Saukkonen 1965: 144)

tarvita

‘to need’ (Laitinen 1992: 130)

lie-

modal variant of auxiliary ‘be’(Saukkonen 1965: 174)


Impersonal vs personal pattern
Impersonal vs personal pattern

Minavarimpid’läem. (Salats)

Iearliermust(=hold).PST.1SG go-INF

‘I had to leave earlier.’

Minnәnvarald pidiksläem. (Piza)

I-DATearly must(=hold)-COND.3SG go-INF

‘I had to leave earlier’


Grammaticalization parameters lehmann 2002
Grammaticalization parameters (Lehmann 2002)

Integrity (semantic bleaching, formal erosion)

Paradigmaticity

Paradigmatic variability

Structural scope

Bondedness

Syntagmatic variability


Integrity semantic bleaching semantic bleaching leads to polyfunctionality e g saada get
Integrity: semantic bleachingSemantic bleaching leads to polyfunctionality; e.g. saada ‘get’


Integrity formal erosion
Integrity: formal erosion

Morphological degeneration:

lack of person/number inflection;

lack of mood inflection;

lack of voice inflection;

lack of tense inflection;

lack of negative or positive forms;

lack of nominalization(s) that are productive with other verbs.


Loss of person inflection a shift from personal to impersonal pattern
Loss of person inflection:a shift from personal to impersonal pattern

Old Written Estonian

a. Nende tähtes sannade sees tullewad meil keige ennamiste

these important word-PL.GEN in come-PRS.3PL we-ADE SUPER most

kaks asja tähhele panna (Seitse Paasto-Jutlust 1817: 56: Penjam 2005: 106)

two thing-PRT to_notice-INF

‘In these important words there are two things that need to be noticed above all’

Modern Standard Estonian

b. Nende tähtsate sõnade sees tuleb meil kõigerohkem

these important.PL word-PL.GEN in come-PRS.3SG we-ADE SUPER most

kahte asja tähele panna.

two-PRT thing-PRT to_notice-INF

‘In these important words there are two things that need to be noticed above all.’


Modal verbs in balto finnic
Lack of nominalization(s) that are productive with other verbs:e.g. lack of agentive nounendingin –ja

a. ta tahab tulla

‘s/he wants to come’

tulla tahtja

‘one who wants to come’

b. ta võib tulla

‘s/he can come’

*tullavõija

‘one who can come’


Modal verbs in balto finnic
Paradigmaticity verbs:Paradigmaticization: shift from an open class to a closed class of words, increase in irregularity, fossilization

Example of fossilization: the form of the potential moodof the Finnish verb lie- has become a modal particle/adverb

Väliaikana lienee valmistellaan jo seuraavaa

break-ESS be(=SPPL)-POT prepare-PRS.PASS already next-PRT

kokousta. (ISK 2004: 1522)

meeting-PRT

‘Probably preparations will already be made for the next meeting during the break.’


Modal verbs in balto finnic
Paradigmatic variability: the freedom to chose between various means for expressing the category or to leave the category unspecified

The decrease of such freedom is called “obligatorification” by Lehmann. For example, the Estonian necessity verb tulema ‘to come’ requires the subject of the infinitive to be animate (b). In contrast, the verb pidama ‘to hold’, which is also used for expressing necessity, does not show such a restriction (a), and, is, thus, more obligatory:

a. Mütspeabpeas olema.

capmust(=hold)-3SG head-INE be-INF

‘A cap must be worn.’ (Uuspõld 1989: 475)

b. *Mütsiltulebpeas olla.

cap-ADEmust(=come)-3SGhead-INEbe-INF

‘A cap must be worn.’ (Uuspõld 1989: 475)


Structural scope
Structural scope various means for expres

The structural scope of a gram is the structural size of the construction it helps to form. The structural scope of the verbs following the personal pattern – see Karelianvoija in (a) – is narrower than the structural scope of those following the impersonal pattern – see Karelian piteä in (b).

a. Mie voin lähtie makuamah.

I can-1SG go-INF sleep-INF

‘I can go to sleep.’

b. Miulapitäylähtie makuamah.

I-ADE/ALLmust(=hold)-3SG go-INF sleep-INF

‘I must go to sleep.’ (Pekka Zaikov, p.c.)


Bondedness syntagmatic variability
Bondedness; Syntagmatic variability various means for expres

Bondedness:

The syntagmatic cohesion or bondedness of a sign is the intimacy with which it is connected with another sign to which it bears a syntagmatic relation.

Syntagmatic variability:

Syntagmatic variability concerns the positional mutability of a sign with respect to those constituents with which it forms a construction.


Language contact
Language contact various means for expres

Types of language contact:

Lexical borrowing

Code-copying


Language contact code copying
Language contact: code-copying various means for expres

Karelian: due to the intense contact with Russian practically all core modal verbs can occur in the impersonal pattern.


Modal verbs in balto finnic

Voidgo various means for expres miuлa teil’ä üödä moata.

can(=be_able)-3SG-Q I-ADE/ALLyou-ADE/ALLnight-PRT sleep-INF

‘Can I sleep at your place tonight.’ (Palmeos 1962: 33).

Suawgolähtie sinul? (SKJ-LD 1990: 364)

get(=get)-3SG-Qdepart-INF you-ADE/ALL

‘Can you go?’

Koska autorikkautu, meilä piti

because carbrake-REFL-PST.3SGwe-ADE/ALL must(=hold)-PST.3SG

kulkie.

walk-INF

’Because the car broke down, we had to walk.’ (Pekka Zaikov: Standard Karelian p.c.)


Modal verbs in balto finnic

Hänellä various means for exprestarviččenut sukeltaa. (Anastassia Trifonova: Olonets p.c.)

s/he-ADE need-PST.PTCP dive-INF

‘S/he had to dive.’

miuлtuloo sanuo (Saukkonen 1965: 154)

I-ADE/ALL must(=come)-3SG say-INF

‘I must say.’

Miuл täydyö lähtie (Saukkonen 1965: 147)

I-ADE/ALL must(=get_filled)-3SG depart-INF

‘I need to go.’

miula l´ienöu ruadua. (KKS III 1983: 86)

I-ADE/ALL must(=be)-3SG work-INF

‘I must work.’


Verbs used with the impersonal modal pattern
Verbs used with the impersonal modal pattern various means for expres

WESTERN

EASTERN

Livonian

Estonian

Finnish

Votic

Ingrian

Karelian

Veps

voida

‘to be able’

NO

NO

NO

YES

?

YES

YES

saada

‘to get’

NO

NO

NO

YES

?

YES

YES

pitää

‘to hold’

YES

NO

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES


West east cline
West-east cline: various means for expres

WEST

EAST

high polyfunctionality of ‘to get’

2) verbs of possibility always occur in personal pattern

3) preference for modal verbs

low polyfunctionality of ‘to get’

2) verbs of possibility also occur in impersonal pattern

3) preference for modal adverbs


Conclusions
Conclusions various means for expres

  • Seven core modal verbs in Balto-Finnic.

  • Semantically defined class with rather heterogeneous morphosyntactic properties.

  • Relatively low degree of grammaticalization.

  • The modal system of Balto-Finnic has been subjected to a considerable external influence.