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ECE2030 Introduction to Computer Engineering Lecture 7: Simplification using K-map. Prof. Hsien-Hsin Sean Lee School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Georgia Tech. Hamming Distance. The count of bits different in two binary patterns Examples: D h (1001, 0101) = 2

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## ECE2030 Introduction to Computer Engineering Lecture 7: Simplification using K-map

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**ECE2030 Introduction to Computer EngineeringLecture 7:**Simplification using K-map Prof. Hsien-Hsin Sean Lee School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Georgia Tech**Hamming Distance**• The count of bits different in two binary patterns • Examples: • Dh(1001, 0101) = 2 • Dh(0xADF4, 0x9FE3) = ?? • Unit-Distance Codes • Reduce errors during transmission such as rotary positional sensor • E.g. Gray Code**Gray Code Construction**0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 000 001 011 010 110 111 101 100 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 00 01 11 10 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 10 11 01 00 100 101 111 110 010 011 001 000 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1**Karnaugh Map (K-Map)**• A graphical map method to simplify Boolean function up to 6 variables • A diagram made up of squares • Each square represents one minterm (or maxterm) of a given Boolean function**Karnaugh Map Examples**Note that the Hamming Distance between adjacent columns or adjacent rows (including cyclic ones) must be 1 for simplification purposes**Karnaugh Map**Adjacent columns or rows allow grouping of minterms (maxterms) for simplification**Implicant**• Definition • A product term is an Implicant of a Boolean function if the function has an output 1 for all minterms of the product term. • In K-map, an Implicant is • bubble covers only 1 (bubble size must be a power of 2) CD AB**Prime Implicant**• Definition • If the removal of any literal from an implicant I results in a product term that is not an implicant of the Boolean function, then I is an Prime Implicant. • Examples • BCD is an implicant, but CD or BD or BC do not imply a 1 in this function; BCD is a PI • B’C’D is an implicant, but B’C’ is not an implicant, thus B’C’D is not a PI • In K-map, a Prime Implicant (PI) is • bubble that is expanded as big as possible (bubble size must be a power of 2) CD AB**Essential Prime Implicant**• Definition • If a minterm of a Boolean function is included in only one PI, then this PI is an Essential Prime Implicant. • In K-map, an Essential Prime Implicant is • Bubble that contains a 1 covered only by itself and no other PI bubbles CD AB**Non-Essential Prime Implicant**• Definition • A Non-Essential Prime Implicant is a PI that is not an Essential PI. • In K-map, an Non-Essential Prime Implicant is • A 1 covered by more than one PI bubble CD AB**Simplification for SOP**• Form K-Map for the given Boolean function • Identify all Essential Prime Implicants for 1’s in the K-map • Identify non-Essential Prime Implicants in the K-map for the 1’s which are not covered by the Essential Prime Implicants • Form a sum-of-products (SOP) with all Essential Prime Implicants and the necessary non-Essential Prime Implicants to cover all 1’s**Example for SOP**• Identify all the essential PIs for 1’s • Identify the non-essential PIs to cover 1’s • Form an SOP based on the selected PIs BC A**Example for SOP**• Identify all the essential PIs for 1’s • Identify the non-essential PIs to cover 1’s • Form an SOP based on the selected PIs CD AB**Example for SOP**• Identify all the essential PIs for 1’s • Identify the non-essential PIs to cover 1’s • Form an SOP based on the selected PIs CD AB**Prime Implicants**• All the prior definitions apply to ‘0’ (or maxterm) as well • Consider these implicants imply a ‘0’ output**Simplification for POS**• Form K-Map for the given Boolean function • Identify all Essential Prime Implicants for 0’s in the K-map • Identify non-Essential Prime Implicants in the K-map for the 0’s which are not covered by the Essential Prime Implicants • Form a product-of-sums (POS) with all Essential Prime Implicants and the necessary non-Essential Prime Implicants to cover all 0’s**Example for POS**• Identify all the essential PIs for 0’s • Identify the non-essential PIs to cover 0’s • Form an POS based on the selected PIs BC A**Example for POS**• Identify all the essential PIs for 0’s • Identify the non-essential PIs to cover 0’s • Form an POS based on the selected PIs CD AB**Don’t Care Condition X**• Don’t care (X) • Those input combinations which are irrelevant to the target function (i.e. If the input combination signals can be guaranteed never occur) • Can be used to simplify Boolean equations, thus simply logic design • In K-map • Use X to express Don’t Care in the map • Don’t care can be bubbled as 1 or 0 depending on SOP or POS simplification to result into bigger bubble**Don’t Care Example BCD to Gray Code**• BCD stands for Binary Coded Decimal • Each digit of a decimal number is represented by one code • BCD only encodes from 0 to 9 • Require 4 bits • Only use 10 out of 16 encoding space**BCD to Gray Code (Do not use Don’ Care)**• BCD stands for Binary Coded Decimal • Each digit of a decimal number is represented by one code • BCD only encodes from 0 to 9 • Require 4 bits • Only use 10 out of 16 encoding space**What g2 is?**• g2 = F(b3, b2, b1, b0)**Example: g2 of BCD-to-Gray**Without using Don’t Care Take Don’t Care into account b1b0 b1b0 b3b2 b3b2**Use Karnaugh Map in B5 orB6**• In B5 • 2 K-maps are to be constructed (2 submaps) • Consider one submap is on top of the other • Cells that occupy the same relative position in 2 maps are considered adjacent • Bubble can be constructed in vertical dimension when stacking up 2 maps • In B6 • 4 K-maps are to be constructed (4 submaps) • Similar to B5 , yet another dimension needs to be considered**Karnaugh Map Example in B5**CD CD AB AB E = 0 E = 1**Karnaugh Map Example in B6**YZ YZ WX WX U,V=0,0 U,V=0,1 YZ YZ WX WX U,V=1,0 U,V=1,1**F = Ā (SOP)**F = B (POS) F = Ā (POS) Minimal SOP and POS w/ Don’t care • Could lead to different function if the same x is treated as 1 in SOP but as 0 in POS. • Even though the final Boolean functions could be different, but for those ones with non-don’t care square, correct functionality was maintained. B A**Use Karnaugh Map in B5 orB6**• It is getting hard and complicated • Eye-ball simplification on several submaps is error-prone, leading to sub-optimal results • Do we have a better algorithm? • Quine-McCluskey Method

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