PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY

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  1. PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY

  2. Biotechnology Bio  Biology Technology  Application The application of Biologyfor the benefit of humans

  3. Biotechnology ? • The application of biological organisms, systems or processes to manufacturing and service industries • The integrated use of biochemistry, microbiology and engineering sciences in order to achieve technological (industrial) application capabilities of microorganism, cultured tissue cells and part thereof • A technology using biological phenomena by copying and manufacturing various kinds of useful substance • The application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of materials by biological-agents to provide goods and services

  4. Biotechnology ? • The science of the production processes based on the action of microorganisms and their active components and production processes involving the use of cells and tissues from higher organisms. It was not included medical technology, agriculture and traditional crop breeding • The use of living organism and their component in agriculture, food and other industrial processes • The use of microbial, animal and plant cells or enzymes to synthesize, breakdown and transform materials • The integration of natural sciences and organisms, cells, parts thereof and molecular analogues to product and services

  5. Stages of Biotechnology Development • Ancient biotechnology early history as related to food and shelter; Includes domestication • Classical biotechnology built on ancient biotechnology; Fermentation promoted food production, and medicine • Modern biotechnology manipulates genetic information in organism; Genetic engineering

  6. Stages of Biotechnology Development • Traditional/old biotechnology The conventional techniques that have been used to produce beer, wine, cheese, many other food • New/modern biotechnology All methods of genetic modification by recombinant DNA and cell fusion techniques, together with the modern development of traditional biotechnological process

  7. Areas of Biotechnology • Organismic biotechnology uses intact organisms; Does not alter genetic material • Molecular biotechnology alters genetic makeup to achieve specific goals • Transgenic organism- an organism with artificially altered genetic material

  8. Biotechnology: A collection of technologies

  9. The Applications of Biotechnology • Medical Biotechnology • Diagnostics • Therapeutics • Vaccines • Agricultural Biotechnology • Plant agriculture • Animal agriculture • Food processing • Environmental Biotechnology • Cleaning through bioremediation • Preventing environmental problems • Monitoring the environment

  10. Plant agriculture • Crop production and protection • Genetically engineered (transgenic) crops • Using biological methods to protect crops • Exploiting cooperative relationships in nature • Nutritional value of crops • Improving food quality and safety • Healthier cooking oils by decreasing the conc. Of saturated fatty acids in vegetable oils • Functional foods: foods containing significant levels of biologically active components that impart health benefits Plant Biotechnology

  11. PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY Manipulating plants for the benefit of mankind • Traditionally • breeding • tissue culture • inter-specific hybridisation • mapping phenotypic/biochemical markers

  12. PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY a process to produce a genetically modified plant by removing genetic information from an organism, manipulating it in the laboratory and then transferring it into a plant to change certain of its characteristics . • Now use a molecular approach to manipulation: • molecular markers & mapping • gene cloning, sequencing • plant transformation • genetic manipulation - transfer, silencing, up-regulation

  13. pathogen-derived genes bacterial genes any other organism Pathogen resistance Herbicide resistance • Applications: • transgenic bioreactors Delivery systems Exogenous genes (non-plant genes)

  14. Enzymes in biochemical pathway Natural resistance genes Mapping Gene discovery (functional genomics) ESTs, libraries Silencing, expression Mutants, arrays • Applications: • markers • transgenic Marker assisted breeding Plant improvement Endogenous genes (Plant genes)

  15. Outline • Plant Tissue Culture and Applications • Plant Tissue Culture • Micro-propagation • Somatic Embryos • Chemicals from Plants • Other Uses of Tissue Culture • Protoplast Fusion • Somaclonal Variation • Germplasm Storage • Plant Genetic Engineering • Cloning • Plant Transformation • Transgenic Plant

  16. Outline • Applications of Plant Genetic Engineering • Crop Improvement • Genetically Engineered Traits: The Big Six • Herbicide Resistance • Insect Resistance • Virus Resistance • Altered Oil Content • Delayed Fruit Ripening • Pollen Control • Biotech Revolution: Cold and Drought Tolerance and Weather-Gard Genes • Genetically Engineered Foods • Soybeans • Corn • Canola • Cotton • Other Crops

  17. Outline • Nutritionally Enhanced Plants—Golden Rice: An International Effort • Cause for Concern? The Case of StarLink Corn • Cause for Concern? Genetically Engineered Foods and Public Concerns • Molecular Farming • Edible Vaccines • Biopolymers and Plants • A Bright Future

  18. Grading system Grade : 0 – 100 • A > 80 • B – D → 45 – 80 (Normal distribution) • E < 45 Grade composition