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Early Civilizations. Eden. The Place of Beginnings. Eden. Fertile Crescent Earliest Civilization Cities Specialized Labor Government Arts & Sciences Religious Beliefs Written Language Earth destroyed by Flood New City in Land of Shinar Tower of Babel & Scattering. Mesopotamia .

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slide2
Eden

The Place of Beginnings

slide3
Eden
  • Fertile Crescent
  • Earliest Civilization
    • Cities
    • Specialized Labor
    • Government
    • Arts & Sciences
    • Religious Beliefs
    • Written Language
  • Earth destroyed by Flood
  • New City in Land of Shinar
  • Tower of Babel & Scattering
mesopotamia
Mesopotamia

The Restoration of Civilization

sumerian civilization
Sumerian Civilization
  • Dozen independent city-states
  • Polytheistic
  • Cuneiform writing on clay tablets
  • Farming & agriculture
  • Ziggurats
  • Contributions:
    • Cuneiform writing
    • Building techniques
    • Wheel
    • Division of circle into 360 degrees
    • Division of hours & minutes
amorite civilization
Amorite Civilization
  • Conquered Sumerian Civilization
  • “Old Babylonian” Empire
  • Capital at Babylon
  • Hammurabi (6th king) united Mesopotamia & wrote Code of Law
  • Epic of Gilgamesh
  • Contributions:
    • Trade in gold, silver, tin, textiles
    • Algebra, geometry, astronomy
egypt
Egypt

Place of God’s Preservation for His People

egypt1
Egypt
  • Narrow strip of land along Nile River
  • “Gift of the Nile”
    • Annual flooding provide fertile soil.
    • Transportation & communication
  • Three periods of history:
    • Old Kingdom (Age of the Pharaohs)
    • Middle Kingdom (Age of the People)
    • New Kingdom (Age of the Empire)
  • Polytheistic
  • Contributions
    • Advances in medicine
    • First solar calendar
    • Hieroglyphics & papyrus
    • Architectural achievements
land of canaan
Land of Canaan

The Promised Land and its Inhabitants

hittites
Hittites

Descendents of Ham

Ruled by kings (not priests or gods)

Controlled supplies of iron ore and produced iron

Used iron weapons & horse-drawn chariots to extend empire.

Weakened by fighting with Egypt.

Absorbed by more advanced cultures.

phoenicians
Phoenicians
  • Greatest merchants of the day
  • Traded throughout Mediterranean Region
  • Planted colonies through Mediterranean.
  • Natural resources:
    • Mollusks (purple dye)
    • Cedar & fir trees
  • Developed alphabet (replaced cuneiform & hieroglyphics)
arameans
Arameans

Descendents of Shem

Commercial empire on land

Centrally located along trade routes

Aramean language became common language of the area.

Conquered by Assyrians.

hebrews
Hebrews

Descendents of Abraham

Bondage in Egypt

Theocracy

Promised Land

Judges

David & Solomon

Division & Judgment

near eastern empires
Near Eastern Empires

God’s Instruments of Punishment and Preservation

assyrian empire
Assyrian Empire

Largest empire up to 550 BC

Borrowed gods, language, arts, science from previous Mesopotamian cultures.

Known for military might and cruelty.

God used them to punish Israel.

God sent Jonah to preach to Nineveh & they repented for a time.

Destroyed by Chaldeans.

babylonian empire
Babylonian Empire
  • Capital city of Babylon was oldest & grandest city of ancient world.
  • Reached its height during reign of Nebuchanezzar in 6thc. BC
  • Known for knowledge of astronomy.
  • God used them to punish other nations
    • Allied with other nations to defeat Assyrians.
    • Took Judah into exile in Babylon.
  • Fell in one night to Medes & Persians.
persian empire
Persian Empire

Cyrus the Great one of greatest conquerors in history.

Persian culture borrowed from previous civilizations.

God used Cyrus to free His people from captivity in Babylon.

Ruled the world until Alexander.

macedonian empire
Macedonian Empire

Began under Philip II of Macedonia.

Expanded by his son, Alexander.

Conquered Persian Empire.

Marched to India before his men refused to continue.

Divided at Alexander’s death among four generals.

Eventually conquered by Rome.