Geo-Political and Economic Impacts of the Mandate System By: Ben Hilse, Christina Morrissey, Conner Taylor, Kayla McCollum, Jesse Sutherland, and Amy Toner
What is a Mandate? • Established by Article 22 of the League of Nations Covenant • June 28, 1919 • Put into force by the League of Nations • Legal status for territories • Transferred power from 1 country to another Africa pre-mandate
What is a Mandate? • The territories subject to the League of Nations Mandates • Countries Defeated in WWI • Germany • Ottoman Empire • Process of establishing the mandate: • Removal of sovereignty of state previously in control • Transfer of power to winning nations • France • Britain • Belgium
Class A Mandates • Class A Mandates were the holdings of the Ottoman Empire that were broken up and divided by the League of Nations. • These were territories deemed to "... have reached a stage of development where their existence as independent nations can be provisionally recognized subject to the rendering of administrative advice and assistance by a Mandatory until such time as they are able to stand alone. The wishes of these communities must be a principal consideration in the selection of the Mandatory.“ – Article 22, Treaty of Versailles • The Class A Mandates were divided amongst Britain and France. • The Ottoman territories were first addressed by the League in the Treaties of Sevres (1920), formally divided up at the San Remo Convention (1920), and finalized in the Treaty of Lausanne (1923)
British Mandate of Palestine • September 29th, 1923 – May 15th, 1948 • The land was taken by the British in 1917 to prevent the Ottomans from cutting off Britain’s access to India. • British control of Palestine facilitated trade between Britain and India. • Gave British better access to Middle Eastern oil. • The mandate was divided into two sections: - Palestine, which was ruled directly by the British. - Transjordan, which was autonomous but still under heavy British influence.
Geopolitical Impact • In 1917, the British expressed support for the Zionist movement in the Balfour Declaration. • In In 1922, in the Transjordan Memorandum, Britain proposed the establishment of a National Home of the Jewish People west of the Jordan River. • Britain had promised Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca independence for an Arab country covering most of the Arab Middle East in exchange for his support, while also promising to create and foster a Jewish national home in Palestine in the Balfour Declaration of 1917, in return for Jewish support. • According to official records, 367,845 Jews and 33,304 non-Jews immigrated legally between 1920 and 1945. It was estimated that another 50–60,000 Jews and a small number of non-Jews immigrated illegally during this period. • By the end of World War II, roughly one third of the population of Palestine was Jewish. This has led to the longest-running conflict in the Middle East and one of the most dramatic clashes between East and West in history.
Present-Day Israel Estimates place the number of causalities of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict at around 15,000 since Israel’s creation, but the number of civilians killed is probably much higher. 5 full-scale wars have been fought between Israel and the Arab states over Palestine. The conflict has made it much more difficult for the nations of Europe to accomplish anything in the Middle East, as a result of strained diplomatic relations because of European support of Israel. During the Interwar Period, fighting happened almost everyday between Arab natives and Jewish settlers. Eventually, the economically advanced Jews won out, leading to the creation of Israel after WWII.
British Mandate of Mesopotamia (Iraq) • Mesopotamia was given to Britain in August of 1920 after the Ottoman Empire was divided (Treaty of Sevres) • In the beginning, the mandate was met with much opposition because Islamic rules state that Muslims should not be ruled by non-Muslims. • The Great Iraqi Revolution of 1920: brought Sunnis and Shias together. • Britain assigned Faisal ibn Husayn as the first king, they assigned an army under British control, and proposed the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of 1922 (Cairo Conference of March 1921) • Anglo-Iraqi Treaty – the king would follow all British advice on all matters affecting British interests and on fiscal policy, and British officials would be appointed as advisers and inspectors.
British Mandate of Mesopotamia (Iraq) • Military was stronger than the political structure of Iraq. Sunnis that had served for the Ottoman Empire were in the higher ranks and the tribal Shias filled the lower ranks. • Iraqi politics shifted towards an alliance of important personalities and cliques rather than a democracy. • New Anlgo-Iraqi treaty signed in 1930; a close alliance, consultations between countries about foreign policy, and mutual assistance in case of war • Intended to last 25 years and become relevant when Iraq joined the League of Nations (1932)
British Mandate of Mesopotamia (Iraq) • Turkish Petroleum Company – owned by Britain and claimed the Mosul region, but French had 25% of the share (1919). • In 1923, the Iraqis attempted to get a share of the TPC, but were unsuccessful when the League of Nations voted on their demands.
Syria and Lebanon • Given to France in 1923 by the League of Nations after the division of the Ottoman Empire. • Skyes-Picot Agreement – between Britain and France saying that Britain controlled Ottoman Mesopotamia and the southern part of Ottoman Syria, while France controlled the rest of Ottoman Syria (Syria, Lebanon, Alexandretta and parts of Turkey). • French were oppressive
Syria and Lebanon • France established a loose federation between states in Syria. • There was general unrest in the states. • 1936, the Franco-Syrian Treaty of Independence - was not ratified by the French, just intended to make peace.
Class “B” Mandates • Not considered advanced enough politically/economically to have complete independence • Greater level of control from mandatory power • Former German territories in Western and Central Africa • "...the Mandatory must be responsible for the administration of the territory under conditions which will guarantee freedom of conscience and religion.“ • Article 22, Treaty of Versailles • Mandates- • Rwanda and Burundi (Belgium) July 20th, 1922 • Tanzania (Great Britain) July 20th, 1922 • Cameroon (France) July 20th, 1922 • Togo (Great Britain/ France) July 20th, 1922
Rwanda and Burundi • Geo-Political Impact • Most of East Africa mandated to Britain • Rwanda- Belgium • Economic Impact • Economy relies mostly on agriculture • Coffee/ tea • Belgium took tons of money from the revenue of the coffee and tea industry in Rwanda and Burundi • Treated natives with little respect
Tanzania • Geo-Political Impact • Fell under British control • Didn’t suffer an influx of European settlers • Significant factor when the country approached independence • Economic Impact • Economy relies mostly on agriculture • Resources also include valuable minerals • Diamonds • Gold • British were greedy when it came to Tanzania’s valuable resources
Cameroon • Geo-Political Impact • Mandated to France • 2 small sections on the border given to Britain (British Cameroon) • British Cameroon was neglected • Large influx of people from Nigeria • Britain wanted ports in Cameroon to aid their landlocked African colonies. • Economic Impact • French Cameroon • Agriculture development growth, limited growth in industry
Togo • Geo-Political Impact • Split along an east/west line • 1/3rd to the west went under British control • 2/3rd to the east went under French control • Became part of French West Africa • Economic Impact • The economy was booming under German rule • Agriculture (Cocoa, Coffee, Cotton) • Togolese weren’t happy with German rule • Welcomed British with “open arms” Parts of Ghana used to be part of Togo
Class “C” Mandates • not considered capable of sustaining an independent state due to its • sparse population • small size • remoteness
Class “C” Mandate Distribution • former German possessions: • Namibia to South Africa • New Guinea and Naura to Australia • Samoa to New Zealand • North Western Pacific Islands to Japan • South Pacific Mandate
Namibia • October 1, 1922 • Rich in resources, mining was the single most important contributor to the economy • Uranium • Rich amounts of diamonds • gas deposits in the Atlantic Ocean • Economy was similar to South Africa
The Territory of New Guinea • 1919 • Australians expected New Guinea to be profitable • New Guinea was costly • Served more as a militarist base • Had to fight off various countries including Japan • 1884:Germany claims • 1906: total responsibility transferred Australia. • During the war, Australian forces seized German New Guinea • 1920:became the Territory of New Guinea by League mandate territory of Australia.
Naura • World’s smallest island • Phosphate Mining • few other resources, and most necessities are imported • Nauru was captured by Australian troops. • Nauru Island Agreement (1919): • Australia, New Zealand, and UK • Creates British Phosphate Commission (BPC) which took over the rights to phosphate • 1923: the League of Nations gives Australia a trustee mandate over Nauru, with the UK & New Zealand as co-trustees.
Western Samoa • Germans produced mass amounts of cocoa beans and rubber • The value of natural rubber fell drastically, about the end of the World War I • Then New Zealand government encouraged the production of bananas, for which there is a large market in New Zealand. • Samoan cocoa beans are of very high quality and used in fine New Zealand chocolates. • The Only crops that can be successfully grown are copra, cocoa beans, and bananas. • Tripartite Convention: splits into two parts(eastern goes to US) • Germans get after Britain vacated all claims to Samoa and accepted termination of German rights in Tonga and certain areas in the Solomon Islands and West Africa. • Aug. 29th,1914: New Zealand seize German authorities. • Britain said: "great and urgent imperial service.“ • From the end of WW1until 1962, New Zealand controlled Samoa as a class C mandate under trusteeship of the League
South Pacific Mandate(South Sea Mandate) • Included: • Palau • Northern Mariana Islands • Federated States of Micronesia • Marshal Islands • Area was more for its strategic military usefulness • The mandated territories produced significant quantities of sugar cane, bananas, pineapples, taro, coconuts and other tropical farming products • Fishing • Large qualities of pearls • Mineral production of phosphates • The population of the South Seas Mandate was too small to provide SUBSTANSTIAL markets and the indigenous people had very limited financial resources for the purchase of imported goods
Bibliography • http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/League-of-Nations-Mandate.pdf • http://www.library.pima.gov/inperfectharmony/clip_image005_0000.jpg • http://www.sfu.ca/archaeology/museum/ndi/History.html#The%20mandates • http://www.sos-childrensvillages.org/where-we-help/africa/togo/pages/country-information.aspx