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Pakistan. The Political System of . Political and Religious positions Presented by Frances Hill and Amanda Bailey. Brief History of Pakistan. Pakistan was first established as an independent nation on August 14 in 1947.

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the political system of


The Political System of

Political and Religious positions

Presented by Frances Hill and Amanda Bailey

brief history of pakistan
Brief History of Pakistan
  • Pakistan was first established as an independent nation on August 14 in 1947.
  • Muhammad Ali Jinnah, founder of Pakistan, emphasised the importance of Islam.
religious composition of pakistan
Religious composition of Pakistan
  • 97% Muslim
  • 77% Sunni-Muslim
  • 20% Shi-a-Muslim
  • Remaining 3% Christian, Hindu, Sikh or other beliefs.
presidential power
Presidential Power
  • President acts on advice of Prime Minister
  • May adopt absolute power to dissolve National Assembly, according to the 8th Amendment of the constitution.
islam in government
Islam in Government
  • Increased involvement of Islam in the Pakistani Government since 1984 Referendum
  • Enforcement of Sharia or Islamic Law since 1985
  • Assessment by the Shariat/Islamic Court regarding federal laws
military in government
Military in Government
  • The Military long standing force in Pakistani politics
  • The President General Pervez Musharraf was never elected, came to power after a military take-over of government in 1999
  • Resigned as Army Chief of Staff in November 2007
  • Regarding Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan accords with UN Security Council Resolutions
    • developments and changes are to be made according to the will of the Kashmiri people
  • Pakistan is willing to take a bilateral approach with India in order to begin constructive dialogues regarding Jammu & Kashmir.
  • President Musharraf (2008) says Pakistan is a peaceful country, but a strong national defence is important in maintaining peace.
  • Musharraf (2008) maintains an adequate defence force in Pakistan is necessary to defend the country and to support its economic development.
pakistan s foreign policy
Pakistan’s foreign policy

Pakistan’s foreign policy as proclaimed by Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, to the people of the USA in February 1948:

“Our foreign policy is one of friendliness and goodwill towards the nations of the world. We do not cherish aggressive designs against any country or nation. We believe in the principle of honesty and fair play in national and international dealings and are prepared to make our utmost contribution to the promotion of peace and prosperity among the nations of the world. Pakistan will never be found lacking in extending its material and moral support to the oppressed and suppressed peoples of the world, and in upholding the principles of the United Nations Charter.”

(Muhammad Ali Jinnah 1948, in Ministry of Foreign Affairs 2008a)

five principals of friendly co existence
Five Principals of Friendly Co-existence
  • Mutual respect for the independence, sovereignty, equality, territorial integrity and national identity of all nations;
  • The right of every state to lead its national existence free from external interference, subversion or coercion;
  • Non-interference in the internal affairs of one another;
  • Settlement of differences or disputes by peaceful means; and the
  • Renunciation of the threat or use of force;


member organisations
Member organisations
  • United Nations;
  • Organisation of Islamic Conference (OIC);
  • South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC); and the
  • Economic Cooperation Organisation (ECO);

(Ministry of Foreign Affairs 2007, p.1)

2007 foreign affairs
2007 Foreign Affairs
  • In spite of turmoil and insecurity in Pakistan 2002-7
  • State remained focused on:
    • Promotion of regional and international peace and security
    • Economic and social development of the country
    • Welfare of its people.
  • Maintained and improved relations with neighbors and major world powers

(Kasuri 2007, p.3)

negotiations actions 2006 7
Negotiations & Actions 2006-7
  • Joined the international coalition against terrorism
  • Initiated dialogue with India regarding Kashmir dispute
  • Supported initiatives and contributed to reconstruction efforts in Afghanistan
  • Deployed forces to counter extremism on the border between Afghanistan and Pakistan’s tribal areas
  • Deepened relations with the US
  • dismantled the AQ Khan network in Pakistan
  • Maintained and developed ongoing relations with China, Iran, Russia and Japan
  • Maintained close relations with their ‘brotherly Islamic countries including Turkey and special relations with Gulf countries in particular with Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates (UAE)’ (Kasuri 2007, p.3-4).
religion in pakistan politics
Religion in Pakistan politics



islam in constitution
Islam in constitution

The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan 1973, Preamble states:

  • Whereas sovereignty over the entire universe belongs to Almighty Allah alone, and the authority to be exercised by the people of Pakistan within the limits prescribed by Him is a sacred trust…
  • Wherein the principles of democracy, freedom, equality, tolerance and social justice, as enunciated by Islam, shall be fully observed…
  • Wherein the Muslims shall be enabled to order their lives in the individual and collective spheres in accordance with the teachings and requirements of Islam as set out in the Holy Quran and Sunnah.


constitution articles pertaining to islam
Constitution Articles pertaining to Islam
  • Article 31: relates to supporting the Muslims of Pakistan in the Islamic way of life.
    • the provision of facilities; and
    • the compulsory teaching of the Holy Quran and Sunnah, as a means of promoting unity and the observance of Islamic moral standards.
  • Article 40: relates to the strengthening of bonds with other Muslim countries based on Islamic unity and the promotion of international peace and security.
  • Article 41: states the minimum requirements of an elected president, which include that he must be a Muslim.
constitution articles pertaining to islam19
Constitution Articles pertaining to Islam
  • Article 227: provides that all existing laws are brought into ‘conformity with the Injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Holy Quran and Sunnah’.
  • Article 228: provides for the establishment of a council of Islamic ideology( the Islamic Council) and the responsibilities of the president in relation to the establishment of the members of the Islamic Council.
  • Article 229, refers to the provision that members of parliament may seek advice from the Islamic Council on matters regarding proposed law and whether they are compatible to the Injunctions of Islam.
  • Article 230, provides for matters referring to the functions of the Islamic Court.


role of islam in pakistan
Role of Islam in Pakistan
  • Islam established as state ideology to distinguish Pakistan’s identity as separate from Hindu India.
  • Islam used as the basis for the creation and unification of a separate state, not expected to serve as a model for government (Blood 1994).
  • Islam remains an important element of national identification and is a central issue in Pakistan’s politics.

(Haqqani 2004, pp.87-9)

controversy over islam s role
Controversy over Islam’s role

Arguments :

  • Islamic ideology is essential to bind its culturally diverse people together.
  • Insistence on Islamic ideology, in opposition to regional demands, has alienated regional groups and eroded national unity (Pakistan 2008).
islam in pakistan
Islam in Pakistan
  • Islam deeply rooted in Pakistan’s history
  • Links to Pakistani military and the Pakistani elite’s world view (Haqqani 2004, p.85).
  • Military rule fomented religious military presence in Pakistan.
  • Islamists gained disproportionate influence over the country’s overall direction.
  • Islam used as the means of achieving a common bond and unity (Haqqani 2004, pp.91-96).

While Islamic ideology remains important in Pakistan, the implications exacerbated by military rule and fundamentalism complicate Pakistan’s political situation and reduce its ability to be identified as a functional modern state.

  • Association of South East Asian Nations 2006, Overview, viewed 10 May 2008, <>.
  • Bielawska, A 2008, State Church Relations, unpublished.
  • Blood, P 1994, ed. Pakistan: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, viewed 5 May 2008, <>.
  • Haqqani, H 2004, The Role of Islam in Pakistan’s Future, The Washington Quarterly • 28:1 pp. 85–96, viewed 4 May 2008 <>.
  • n.d., Information of Pakistan, Basic facts, viewed 4 May 2008, <>.
  • Kasuri, KM 2007, in Foreign Office Year Book 2006-7, Message from the Minister of Foreign Affairs, viewed 10 May 2008, <>.
  • Pakistan 2008, In Encyclopædia Britannica, viewed 6 May 2008 <>.
  • Pakistani Student Association 2008, National Emblem, viewed 10 May 2008, <>.
  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs 2007, Foreign Office year Book 2006-7, viewed 10 May 2008, < >.
  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs 2008b, Pakistan Foreign Relations 2003-
  • 4, Year Book, viewed 10 May 2008, < >.
  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs 2008a, Pakistan: Brief Introduction, viewed 4 May 2008, < >.
  • The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan 1973, viewed 4 May 2008, <>.
  • Witte, G 2007, Bhutto Assassination Sparks Chaos, Washington Post Foreign Service, 28 December; Page A01, viewed 6 May 2008, <> .