1 / 47


FEMORAL HERNIA & SLIDING HERNIA. By Aneesha Thomas 2002 MBBS. FEMORAL TRIANGLE. BOUNDARIES Superior-Inguinal ligament Medially-Adductor longus Laterally- Sartorius

Download Presentation


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript


  2. FEMORAL TRIANGLE BOUNDARIES Superior-Inguinal ligament Medially-Adductor longus Laterally- Sartorius Floor-Iliopsoas&pectineus Roof-Fascia lata, cribriform fascia, subcutaneous tissue&skin Apex-sartorius crosses adductor longus

  3. CONTENTS From lateral to medial Femoral nerve & branches Femoral sheath & Contents Femoral artery & branches Femoral vein & proximal tributaries

  4. FEMORAL SHEATH • Funnel shaped fascial tube. • Extends 3-4cm inferior to inguinal ligament . • Formed by inferior prolongation of Transversalis fascia & ilio-psoas fascia. • Encloses proximal parts of femoral vessels & femoral canal. .

  5. COMPARTMENTS Lateral compartment for Femoral artery Intermediate compartment for femoral vein Medial compartment is Femoral canal

  6. FEMORAL CANAL • Smallest of the 3 femoral compartments • 1.25cm long • Base of femoral canal is directed superiorly –Femoral ring • Extends distally up to proximal edge of saphenous opening

  7. CONTENTS Loose connective tissue Fat Few lymphatic vessels Deep inguinal lymph node -CLOQUET’S NODE

  8. FEMORAL RING Small proximal opening of femoral canal 1cm wide Closed by extraperitoneal fatty tissue is called FEMORAL SEPTUM

  9. BOUNDARIES Lateral-partition b/w femoral canal & femoral vein. Posteriorly-Superior ramus of pubis & ilio pectineal ligament(Astley –cooper’s ligament) Medially-Lacunar ligament(GIMBERNAT’S LIGAMENT) Anteriorly-Medial part of inguinal ligament

  10. FEMORAL HERNIA DEFINITION • Femoral hernia is the protrusion of some portion of viscus or of pre-peritoneal fatty tissue through the femoral canal

  11. INCIDENCE Third most common type of primary hernia More common in females Female to male ratio-4:1. 2%of abdominal wall hernia in men,1\3 in females More common on right side. 20%bilateral High incidence of strangulation

  12. AETIOLOGY • Congenital theory no longer holds now. • Usually appears after middle age. • Natural weakening of tissues & loss of elasticity is the basic cause. • Enlarged femoral ring predisposes to the development of acquired hernia. • Increased abdominal pressure also contributes • More commonly seen in multiparous women

  13. PATHOLOGY Femoral hernias usually enter the femoral Canal at the femoral ring and emerges through the fossa ovalis.

  14. As it emerges from rigid boundaries of femoral canal it dilates to assume a spherical form. Then it pass through fossa ovalis,continue anteriorly,turn upwards

  15. CONTENTS • Omentum and small bowel are the most frequent structures • Sometimes the sac may be empty. • Less commonly colon, bladder,fallopian- tube,ovary,meckels- diverticulum etc • Any of the abdominal viscera except liver&pancreas have been reported

  16. CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS • Tend to be small & symptomless. • Small reducible lump • Dragging pain • Strangulation& incarceration • Intestinal obstruction

  17. Differential diagnosis Inguinal hernia - neck of the sac above & medial to the pubic tubercle. -femoral hernia lateral & below pubic tubercle. -fundus of femoral hernia- sac may overlie the inguinal lig.

  18. SAPHENA VARIX. -saccular enlargement of the termination of the long saphenous vein. -usually accompanied by other signs of varicose veins. -disappears when the patient lies flat. -In both, there is an impulse on coughing -a venous hum can be heard when a stethescope is applied over a saphena varix.

  19. Anenlarged femoral lymph node. • If Cloquet’s lymph node alone is affected, it may be impossible to distinguish from a femoral hernia . Lipoma. Afemoral aneurysm.

  20. A psoas abscess • fluctuating swelling • examination of the spine and X-ray will confirm the diagnosis. Adistended psoas bursa. • The swelling diminishes when the hip is flexed and osteoarthritis of the hip is present.

  21. Cloquet’s hernia. sac lies under the fascia covering the pectineus muscle. Strangulation is likely. The sac may coexist with the usual type of femoral hernia sac. FEMORAL RELATED HERNIA

  22. Hydrocele of a femoral hernial sac Neck of the sac plugged with omentum or by adhesions. Narath’s femoral hernia in patients with CDH due to lateral displacement of the psoas muscle. lies behind the femoral vessels

  23. Laugier’s femoral hernia This is a hernia through a gap in the lacunar (Gimbernat’s) ligament. The diagnosis is based on unusual medial position of a small femoral hernia sac. nearly always strangulated.

  24. STRANGULATED HERNIA • Femoral hernia stangulates frequently. • Reason-rigid boundaries of femoral ring. • Developes gangrene rapidly.

  25. Richter’s hernia-common in femoral hernia -develop intestinal obstruction. -mimic gastroenteritis. • Rx-emergency surgery with resection of all non viable tissue


  27. TYPES OF OPERATION • The low approach (Lockwood) • Trans inguinal (Lotheissen) • High approach of Mc Evedy • Laproscopic repair • Plug repair

  28. PRE OPERATIVE PREPARATION pre medication iv infusion urinary catheterisation correct fluid&electrolyte imbalance prophylactic antibiotics

  29. PRINCIPLE OF SURGERY • Dissection of sac • Inspection of the contents • Ligation of the sac • Hernia repair

  30. LOW APPROACH • Crural approach • Advocated for elective repair • Simple&easy • Disadvantage- less access to strangulated viscus

  31. STEPS OF OPERATION • incision-transverse incision over the lump • Sac is dissected out • Sac is opened • Contents inspected

  32. If viable reduce the contents If non viable omentum-is excised Bowel-resection through a lower midline incision

  33. If difficult to reduce make an incision in the lacunar ligament to release its neck Repair with a non absorbable suture approximate the inguinal lig to pectineal ligament

  34. LOTHEISSEN APPROACH • Incision-oblique groin incision, above&parallel to inguinal lig. • Ext.oblique incised. • Inguinal canal opened.

  35. Incise the transversalis fascia. • Hernial sac is reduced&repaired. • Disadvantage-weaken the inguinal region.

  36. HIGH APPROACH • Optimum method for stangulated hernia. • Incision- U/Lpfannenstiel. good access to pre-peritoneal space. • Hernial sac entering the femoral canal is identified. • If sac is small,drawn upwards. if large,fundus opened below. • Contents dealt appropriately. • Neck of the sac ligated. • Hernia repair done.

  37. HENRY’S REPAIR. Pre-peritoneal approach using a lower midline incision. LAPAROSCOPIC REPAIR. Trans abdominal &extraperitoneal approach.

  38. PLUG REPAIR Plug of mesh inserted to femoral canal. Advantage-low rate of recurrence.


  40. Definition. -in which viscus forms a portion of the wall of the hernial sac. • Slipping of posterior peritoneum on the underlying retroperitoneal structures. • Common-sigmoid colon. • Rt side-caecum. • Others-appendix urinary bladder. fallopian tube. ovary&uterus.

  41. CLINICAL FEATURES • Commonly in men. • 5/6 on Lt side. • Incidence increases with age. • Indirect inguinal hernia-most common. • Suspect in large complete inguinal hernia.

  42. MANAGEMENT USG Cross sectional imaging Diagnosis established during surgery

  43. TREATMENT AIM- • Reduction of viscera into the peritoneal cavity • Ligation of hernial sac • Repair of floor • The hernia sac should be opened on anteromedial border

  44. Another method- Placement of purse string suture &progressive inversion of sliding portion of hernial sac.

  45. SUMMARY • Femoral hernia is protrusion of some portion of viscus or preperitoneal fatty tissue through the femoral canal • More common in females • High chance for strangulation • Omentum &small bowel are most frequent content

  46. Contd…. • Patient usually doesn’t note until strangulation occurs • Inguinal hernia, saphena varix,cloquet lymph node –differential diagnosis • Treatment- Low approach Trans inguinal approach High approach.

  47. Thank You

More Related