Blood. Accept no substitute. Artificial Blood?. Yes it has been developed.
Accept no substitute
The Armed Forces of the Human Body!
Hemophilia – inherited disorder of missing factor VIII
Transfusion of plasma can restore clotting factors
Increases risk of infection from AIDS and HepB
* also known as plaque
Timber Rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus)
Most rattlesnakes have hemotoxic venom.
Cause hemolysis (destroy RBCs)
Cause organ degeneration and destroy tissue
Cause coagulopathy (disrupted blood clotting)
Why would disrupted blood clotting be an effective blood weapon?
Many leeches are hematophagous but not all can bite. Some survive off decaying matter and already open wounds.
Leeches secrete an anticoagulant, hirudin, which impairs blood clotting and allows the leech to acquire more blood from the wound.
Derivatives of hirudin are used in some pharmaceuticals.
Vampire Bats (Desmodontinae)
Vampire bats are hematophagous and feed on the blood of mammals.
A piece of skin is first removed, painlessly, with razor-sharp front incisors.
Vampire bat saliva has an anticoagulant, allowing the blood to flow freely, which it then sucks up with its tongue and lower lip.
Many female mosquitoes are hematophagous. They drink blood to supplement protein and iron for their developing eggs.
Mosquito saliva inhibits vascular constriction, blood clotting, platelet aggregation, angiogenesis (growth of new blood vessels), and immunity.
They are also vectors of many diseases.
Assassin Bug (Triatominae)
a.k.a. The Kissing Bug
Most of the bugs in this family are hematophagous.
Widespread in South America, these insects are vectors for Chagas disease.
This disease can cause cardiac, nervous, and digestive system damage.
Assassin Bug VS Bat Video