Table of Contents • Birds • The Physics of Flight • Mammals
Bird Characteristics • What is a bird? • A bird is an endothermic vertebrate that has feathersand a four-chambered heart and lays eggs (internal fertilization).
- Birds Characteristics of Birds • The bodies of most birds have adaptations for flight.
- Birds Characteristics of Birds • Air sacs and a four-chambered heart help birds obtain oxygen and move it to their cells.
- Birds Characteristics of Birds • Birds have four-chambered hearts and double-loop circulatory systems that efficiently move oxygen to their cells. • The human heart also has four chambers • Compare this to a three chambered heart of an adult Amphibian • or • The two chambered heart of a Fish
- Birds Characteristics of Birds • Some birds like this hawk have a crop and a gizzard. • The crop stores food, and the gizzard crushes food.
- Birds Previewing Visuals • When you preview, you look ahead at the material to be read. Preview Figure 1. Then write two questions you have about the diagram in a graphic organizer like the one below. As you read, answer your questions. Adaptations for Flight Q. How are birds adapted for flight? A. They have lightweight bones, wings, and contour feathers. Q. What is the function of contour feathers? A. They give shape to the body and help the bird balance and steer during flight.
- The Physics of Flight Staying in the Air • The difference in pressure above and below the wings as a bird moves through the air produces an upward force, called lift, that causes the bird to rise.
Birds in Flight • Three types: Flapping, Soaring & Gliding, and Diving
- The Physics of Flight Relating Cause and Effect • A cause makes something happen. An effect is what happens. As you read, identify the physical properties of a bird’s wing that cause lift. Write them down in a graphic organizer like the one below. Cause Air flows around the wing. Effect The shape of the wing causes a difference in air pressure that produces an upward force. Lift Contour feathers give the wings a smooth shape.
- Mammals Mammal Diversity • This circle graph shows the percentages of species of some groups of mammals.
21.8 % Reading Graphs: What percentage of species are bats? - Mammals Mammal Diversity
78.2 % Calculating: What percentage of species are not bats? - Mammals Mammal Diversity
The group with the greatest number of species, rodents, would be the tallest. Graphing: Suppose you used the data shown in the circle graph to make a bar graph. Which bar would be tallest? - Mammals Mammal Diversity
100; no, you do not have to add them because it is a circle chart—the entire chart stands for 100 percent of the items counted— in this case, mammal species. Predicting: What total should all the percentages in the pie chart add up to? Do you have to add the percentages to obtain your answer? Explain. - Mammals Mammal Diversity
Key Terms: Key Terms: Examples: Examples: placental mammal monotreme marsupial placenta gestation period - Mammals Building Vocabulary • A definition states the meaning of a word or phrase by telling about its most important feature or function. After you read the section, reread the paragraphs that contain definitions of Key Terms. Use all the information you have learned to write a definition of each Key Term in your own words. Key Terms: Examples: mammal Unlike a monotreme or a marsupial, a placental mammal develops insides its mother’s body until its body systems can function independently. The yak is a member of the group of vertebrates called mammals. Egg-laying mammals are called monotremes. Marsupials are mammals whose young are born at an early stage of development and usually continue to develop in a pouch on their mother’s body. mammary gland Every young mammal is fed with milk produced by organs in its mother’s body. These organs are called mammary glands. The name of this group comes from the placenta, an organ in pregnant female mammals that passes materials between the mother and the developing embryo. Marsupials have a very short gestation period, the length of time between fertilization and birth. diaphragm Mammals breathe in and out because of the combined action of rib muscles and a large muscle called the diaphragm.
Graphic Organizer Marsupials Monotremes Characteristic Placental Mammals Born live, crawl into mother’s pouch How Young Begin Life Hatch from egg Born live Milk from pores or slits on mother’s skin Milk produced by mother in her pouch Milk produced by mother How Young Are Fed Spiny anteater or duck-billed platypus Human, giraffe, bear, rabbit, whale, etc. Koala, kangaroo, or opossum Example