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4.8 Stems. Pages 296-299. Canadian Economy. F orestry made $23.5 billion, or 1.9 % of Canada’s GDP in 2010. Canada is the second largest forest product exporter in the world. Functions of Stems. Connect roots to leaves Raise leaves to the sun and flowers to pollinators

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4 8 stems


Pages 296-299

canadian economy
Canadian Economy
  • Forestry made $23.5 billion, or 1.9 % of Canada’s GDPin 2010.
  • Canada is the second largestforest product exporter in the world.
functions of stems
Functions of Stems
  • Connect roots to leaves
  • Raise leaves to the sun and flowers to pollinators
  • Store water or carbohydrates
  • Photosynthesis
  • Protection
types of stems
Types of stems
  • Herbaceous-do not contain wood
vascular bundle
Vascular bundle
  • Long continuous strand of vascular tissue (xylem and phloem)
herbaceous stems
Herbaceous Stems
  • Eudicot Monocot
  • In monocots the vascular bundles are found throughout the ground tissue of the stem.
  • In eudicots the vascular bundles are found in a ring around the stem.
eudicot herbaceous
  • Xylem is closer to the centre and phloem is closer to the outside of the stem
woody stems
Woody stems
  • Contain wood and bark
  • All gymnosperms
  • Most woody angiosperms are eudicots
  • Monocots do not produce wood
vascular cambium
Vascular cambium
  • Woody stems contain vascular cambium meristematic tissue.
  • Divides to form new xylem tissue on the inside and new phloem tissue on the outside.
  • Sapwood-young xylem transports water and minerals
  • Heartwood-cells fill up with resins and oils

-provide rigidity and support

  • Tissues found outside the vascular cambium (phloem, cork cambium, and cork)
  • Cork cambium-meristematic tissue produces cork
  • Protects the tree from predators and fires
growth rings
Growth rings
  • Spring…rapid growth, large xylem cells, thin walls, lighter in colour
  • Summer…slow growth, smaller xylem cells, thick walls, darker in colour
xylem cells
Xylem cells
  • Thick-walled
  • Dead at maturity
  • Cell walls with lignin for strength
  • Tracheids-long cylindrical cell with tapered ends with pits, holes that allow water to move to adjoining cells
vessel elements
Vessel Elements
  • Shorter, wider, less tapered
  • Sides have pits
  • Ends have perforation plates
  • -living at maturity
  • -contain cytoplasm
types of phloem
Types of phloem
  • Sieve cells
  • Sieve tube elements
  • Companion cells
  • Sieve cells- pores, organelles
  • Sieve tube elements have cytoplasm but lack a nucleus, ends are called sieve plates
  • Companion cells have nucleus and organelles associated with sieve tube element
underground stems
Underground Stems
  • Tubers Corms Rhizomes
  • Grow along the soil
  • For example: strawberries, mint