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Prenatal Development. Dennis Karpowitz Psychology 333 Child Psychology. Chris and Kim on Conception Island. Female Reproductive Organs. Conception. Every 28 days, an ovum, lasts 24 hours Millions of sperm, viable for up to 6 days Conception in the fallopian tube Tubal pregnancy

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prenatal development
Prenatal Development
  • Dennis Karpowitz
  • Psychology 333
  • Child Psychology

Chris and Kim on Conception Island

conception
Conception
  • Every 28 days, an ovum, lasts 24 hours
  • Millions of sperm, viable for up to 6 days
  • Conception in the fallopian tube
    • Tubal pregnancy
  • Conceptions most likely: on day of ovulation or the two days preceding ovulation
the period of the zygote or the germinal stage
The Period of the Zygote or the Germinal Stage
  • First Two weeks following conception
  • From fallopian tubes to attachment tothe uterine wall
  • Blastocyst, 60-70 cells, 4th day
    • Embryonic disk (organism)
    • Outer Ring (umbilical cord & placenta)
  • Implantation between days 7 & 9
zygote period continued
Zygote Period Continued
  • Amnion Membrane, amniotic fluid
  • Yolk sack produces blood cells
  • Chorion Membrane
  • Placenta - Food, oxygen, waste
  • Umbilical cord
  • 30% of zygotes do NOT survive
the period of the embryo
The Period of the Embryo
  • From 2nd week through 2nd month
  • Very rapid prenatal development
  • Embryonic disk folds into three layers
    • Ectoderm - Nervous system (fast develop.) & skin
    • Mesoderm - skeleton, muscles, circulation
    • Endoderm - Digestion, lungs, urinary tract

5.5 Weeks

9 Weeks

embryonic period cont
Embryonic Period Cont.
  • Many body parts develop the 2nd month
    • Fingers, toes, facial features, nervous system cells fire, teeth buds have formed
  • Embryo’s posture becomes upright
  • The embryo can move
  • The embryo responds to touch (mouth & feet)
the period of the fetus
The Period of the Fetus
  • Growth and finishing
  • Third month
    • Organs, muscles & nervous system organize and connect
    • External genitals – visible with ultrasound
    • End of first trimester
second trimester
Second Trimester
  • 13-24 weeks - first movement felt
  • Vernix covers fetus, prevents chapping
  • Lanugo hold vernix to skin
  • Trillions of brain neurons produced
    • Stimulated by sound and light
third trimester
Third Trimester
  • Age of viability - 22 to 26 weeks
  • Cerebral cortex enlarges
    • Responsive to external stimulation
  • Fat layer develops for temp. reg.
  • Moves to the upside-down position
  • Fetus moves less
teratogens
Teratogens
  • Environmental influences or agents that can damage the developing organism
influence of teratogens
Influence of Teratogens
  • Larger doses, over time, more negative
  • Genetics can help or hinder teratogens
  • Several negative factors increase impact
  • Sensitive periods especially important
  • Embryonic period most susceptible
  • Physical and psychological effects
drugs
Drugs
  • Thalidomide – sedative - 1960’s
  • Aspirin - low birth weight, infant deathPoor motor develop., lower IQ
  • Heavy caffeine use - miscarriagePremature births, irritability
illegal drugs
Illegal Drugs
  • Cocaine, heroin, methadone
    • Prematurity, low birth weight
    • Physical defects, breathing problems,
    • Drug addiction & death
  • Cocaine - lasting difficulties
    • Genital, urinary tract, kidney, heart deformities
    • Brain seizures
crack babies
Crack babies
  • Lowest birth weight
  • Central nervous system damage
  • Fathers on cocaine may pass it on
  • Multiple harmful effects of more than one drug
tobacco use
Tobacco use
  • Low birth weight and premature births
  • Impaired breathing
  • Miscarriage & infant death
  • Placenta doesn’t work correctly
  • Greater concentration of carbon monoxide
  • Passive smoking also injurious
alcohol
Alcohol
  • Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
    • Large amounts of alcohol, whole pregnancy
    • Mental retardation
    • Slow physical growth
    • Facial abnormalities
  • Alcohol interferes with cell duplication
    • Especially neural cells
  • Draws oxygen away from organism
hormones
Hormones
  • Diethylstilbestrol (DES), 1945-70
    • Vaginal cancer
    • Malformation of the uterus
    • Miscarriage, low birth weight
    • In males, genital abnormalities, cancer
radiation
Radiation
  • Hiroshima & Nagasaki
    • Miscarriage, slow physical growth
    • Underdeveloped brains
    • Malformation of skeleton & eyes
  • X-Rays - avoid during pregnancy
environmental pollutants
Environmental Pollutants
  • 100,000 in common use
  • Mercury
    • Mental retardation, speech problems
    • Difficulty chewing & swallowing
    • Uncoordinated movements
  • Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB)
    • Lower birth weight, smaller heads
    • Poor memory, lower verbal IQ
maternal disease
Maternal Disease
  • Viruses - Most not harmful
  • Rubella
    • Heart defects, cataracts, deafness
    • Genital, urinary & intestinal problems
  • HIV & AIDS
    • 20-30% Mothers pass to infants
    • Fast growth in infants
    • Most survive 5 to 8 months
maternal disease cont
Maternal Disease Cont.
  • Herpes viruses
    • Babies infected during pregnancyor at birth
  • Bacterial & Parasitic Diseases
    • Toxoplasmosis from meat or cats
    • 40% transmission
    • Eye & brain damage
positive health activities
Positive Health Activities
  • Moderate, low impact exercise
  • Healthy diet - vitamin supplements
    • Malnutrition causes problems
    • WIC Program
  • Low stress
    • Intense anxiety >> miscarriage, prematurebirth, low birth weight, respiratory illness,Cleft palate & Pyloric stenosis
rh factor
Rh Factor
  • Mother Rh -, father Rh+, Child Rh+
  • Antibodies against foreign Rh protein
  • RhoGam within 72 hours
prenatal health care
Prenatal Health Care
  • Every month of pregnancy visit MD
  • 2X/Month for the last two months
watch for
Watch For . . .
  • Diabetes complications
  • Toxemia
  • Get vaccinations before becoming pregnant
prenatal courses
Prenatal Courses
  • Information: Birth & Parenting
  • Exercises
  • Support
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