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The Romans. Founding of Rome. 753 BC Traditional date of Rome’s founding in Latium Romulus and Remus Rape of the Sabine Women Aeneas. Greeks established themselves in Italy in the 7 th Century BC Tarquinius Priscinus became first king of Rome in 7 th Century BC

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founding of rome
Founding of Rome
  • 753 BC Traditional date of Rome’s founding in Latium
  • Romulus and Remus
  • Rape of the Sabine Women
  • Aeneas
Greeks established themselves in Italy in the 7th Century BC

Tarquinius Priscinus became first king of Rome in 7th Century BC

Etruscans contributed many of the amenities that Romans enjoyed

510 BC Last of the Etruscan kings defeated after Junius Brutus avenged the rape of Lucretia

political structure



Centuriate Assembly

Council of the Plebs (471 BC)

Political Structure
struggle of the orders
Patricians and Plebeians

494 BC First secession of the plebeians; creation of the office of tribune of the plebs

471 BC Creation of the Council of the Plebs

450 Publication of the Twelve Tables

445 Canuleian law: right of plebeians to marry patricians

367 Licinian-Sextus laws: one consul may be a plebeian

342 One consul may be a plebeian, but one must be

287 Hortensian law: laws passed by Council of the Plebs are binding to both classes

Struggle of the Orders
conquest of italy
493 Latin alliance

396 Fall Veii

390 Rome sacked by Gauls

343-290 Samnite Wars

340-338 Revolt of Latin allies

338 Creation of the Roman confederation

281-267 Pyrrhic War

Conquest of Italy
the early republican army
Roman legions

Citizen soldiers








The Early Republican Army
first punic war 264 241
Began as a result of Rome sending an army to support the city of Messina in Sicily

262 Battle of Agrigentum

Siege and naval warfare

260 Battle of Mylae

255 & 253 Fleets lost to storms

241 Battle of Aegates Islands


First Punic War 264-241
second punic war 218 201bc
238 Sardinia and Corsica seized

Hamilcar Barca began conquest of Spain

Hannibal Barca

218 Siege of Saguntum

War declared

Second Punic War 218-201BC
Hannibal crossed the Alps

Nov 218 Battle of Ticinus River

Dec. 218 Battle of the Trebia River

June 24, 217 Battle of Trasimene

Dictatorship of Fabius

crucial events
Gaius Varro

Lucius Paullus

Aug. 2, 216 Battle of Cannae

Macedonia joins Hannibal as do numerous Gallic and Italian cities

Change in strategy

Crucial Events
turning points
Scipio invaded Spain

Hannibal recalled to Africa

Oct. 19?, 202 Battle of Zama

Carthage besieged



Turning Points
third punic war 149 146
“Ceterum censeo Carthaginem esse delendam”

False provocation

Siege of Carthage

End of Carthaginian independence

Third Punic War 149-146
rome vs macedonia
First Macedonian War 215-205 Inconclusive

Second Macedonian War 200-196

197 Battle of Cynoscephalae

Greece came under Roman control

Third Macedonian War 172-167

Macedonia divided into 4 republics

Fourth Macedonian War 151-146

Macedonia annexed to Rome

Rome vs. Macedonia
rome in transition
Pergamum annexed in 133


Reforms of Tiberius Gracchus 163-133

Reforms of Gaius Gracchus 153-121

Rome in Transition
gaius marius 157 86
Jugurthine War 112-105

Novus homo

First consulship 107

Held six more in his lifetime

Gaius Marius 157-86
marian reforms of the roman army
Legionary eagles

Removed property requirements

Professional army

Foreign auxiliary

Allegiance given to commanding general

Marian Reforms of the Roman Army
marius vs sulla
Lucius Sulla 138-78

Social War 91-88

War with Mithridates VI of Pontus

Marius allied himself with a tribune and had Sulla replaced in 88

Sulla marched on Rome; Marius fled to Africa

Marius vs. Sulla
roman civil war 84 82
84 Marius returned to Rome; died 2 weeks later

Proscription lists

83 Sulla and Pompey the Great

Nov 82 Battle of the Colline Gate

83-80 Sulla as dictator

Roman Civil War 84-82
pompey and crassus
Pompey 106-48 sent to Spain

Marcus Crassus 115-53

73-71 Spartacus Revolt

70 Pompey and Crassus as consul

63 Pompey took Jerusalem

Pompey and Crassus
julius caesar
Born July 100

Early life

Political career

62 First Triumvirate; Pompey, Crassus, Caesar

Caesar in Gaul 58-51

Julius Caesar
caesar and pompey
53 Crassus killed at Carrhae

52 Pompey ruled as sole consul due to social unrest

50 Caesar requests second consulship in absentia

49 Pompey declared for the Senate and Caesar recalled to stand trial

Caesar and Pompey
great civil war 49 44
Jan. 11, 49 Rubicon

Pompey to Greece; Caesar to Spain

Jan. 4, 48 Caesar in Greece

Aug. 9, 48 Battle of Pharsalus

Pompey to Egypt

Great Civil War 49-44
great civil war
Oct. 2, 48 Caesar in Egypt


Aug. 2, 47 Battle of Zela

April 46 Battle of Thapsus

45 Battle of Munda

Great Civil War
caesar in power
Dictator for life

Twice offered kingship


Ides of March 44 BC


Caesar in Power
marc antony and octavian
Funeral of Caesar

Octavian named Caesar’s heir

Second Triumvirate

Oct. 3 & 23, 42 Battle of Philippi

Antony to the east; Octavian Rome

Marc Antony and Octavian
civil war
31 War between Octavian and Antony

Sept. 2, 31 Battle of Actium

Antony and Cleopatra commit suicide

Octavian sole ruler of Rome

Civil War