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Introduction to Educational Research (4th ed.) C. M. Charles/Craig A. Mertler. Chapter 1 Educational Research: Its Nature and Rules of Operation. Seeking Answers to Questions. Familiar sources of information: Tradition —relying on past behaviors Authority —seek out opinions of experts

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introduction to educational research 4th ed c m charles craig a mertler
Introduction to Educational Research (4th ed.)C. M. Charles/Craig A. Mertler

Chapter 1

Educational Research:

Its Nature and Rules of Operation

slide2

Seeking Answers to Questions

  • Familiar sources of information:
    • Tradition—relying on past behaviors
    • Authority—seek out opinions of experts
    • Common sense—logical human reasoning
  • Familiar sources often prove to be unsuccessful…why?
  • Less familiar sources of information:
    • Science—study and theoretical explanation
    • Scientific method—systematic discovery of facts and relationships
    • Research—systematic investigation
slide3

The Scientific Method

  • Definition—strategy used to determine facts and relationships; then used to answer questions and resolve problems
    • Facts—agreements made by people knowledgeable in the field
    • Relationships—cause-and-effect associations among facts
    • Common sense—logical human reasoning
  • Scientific method is a procedure for thinking and making decisions objectively
slide4

The Scientific Method (cont’d.)

  • Steps involved in the process:
    • (1) Identify a problem
    • (2) State the main question inherent in the problem
    • (3) State a hypothesis
    • (4) Collect information related to the question
    • (5) Analyze and interpret information
    • (6) Form conclusions derived from analysis/interpretation
    • (7) Use conclusions to verify/reject hypothesis
  • Steps may not be followed in precise order; dependent on specific type of research being used
slide5

Educational Research

  • The application of the scientific method to educational phenomenon
  • Steps involved in the process:
    • (1) Identify a problem
    • (2) State the main question inherent in the problem
    • (3) State a hypothesis
    • (4) Review pertinent and related literature
    • (5) Collect information related to the question
    • (6) Analyze and interpret information
    • (7) Form conclusions derived from analysis/interpretation
    • (8) Use conclusions to verify/reject hypothesis
slide6

Educational Rules of Operation

  • Necessary to credibly obtain reliable/valid information from which to draw conclusions
  • Legal Principles (for the use of human subjects):
    • National Research Act of 1974
    • Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (1974)
    • College/school district institutional review boards
slide7

Educational Rules of Operation (cont’d.)

  • Ethical Principles (moral aspects of research):
    • Principle of beneficence
    • Principle of honesty
    • Principle of accurate disclosure
  • Philosophical Principles (anticipated value of investigation):
    • Principle of significance
    • Principle of generalizability
    • Principle of replicability
    • Principle of probability
slide8

Educational Rules of Operation (cont’d.)

  • Procedural Principles:
    • Principle of researchability
    • Principle of parsimony
    • Principle of credibility
  • A few words about the benefits of practically-oriented research…
slide9

Applying Technology…

Web sites addressing ethical research practices

  • Bowling Green State University, Office of Sponsored Programs and Research (SPAR) (http://www.bgsu.edu/offices/spar/hsrb)
  • University of Minnesota, Office of the Institutional Review Board (http://www.research.umn.edu/subjects/humans/form.htm)
  • Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Title 45 Code of Federal Regulations Part 46) (http://grants.nih.gov/grants/oprr/humansubjects/45cfr46.htm)
  • American Educational Research Association (AERA) Ethical Standards (http://www.aera.net/about/policy/ethics.htm)
  • American Association for Public Opinion Research (AAPOR) Code of Professional Ethics and Practices (http://www.aapor.org/ethics/code.html)