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Special Education 547. Unit Four Curricular Accommodations & Adaptations Kevin Anderson Minnesota State University Moorhead 2006. Assessment of Ability. Determination of disability Ability assessment Formal and informal Tools and methods Data. Categorical Responsibilities.

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special education 547

Special Education 547

Unit Four

Curricular Accommodations & Adaptations

Kevin Anderson

Minnesota State University Moorhead


assessment of ability
Assessment of Ability
  • Determination of disability
  • Ability assessment
    • Formal and informal
    • Tools and methods
    • Data
categorical responsibilities
Categorical Responsibilities
  • Physical impairment
  • Other health disabilities
  • Traumatic brain injury
all categories
All Categories
  • Intellectual functioning
  • Academic performance
  • Social, emotional, behavioral performance
  • Communication
  • Motor ability
  • Functional skills
  • Physical status
  • Sensory status
  • Transition
physical impairment
Physical Impairment
  • Organizational and Independent Work Skills Checklists
  • Motor Skills Checklist
  • Systematic observations
  • Interviews
  • Review and gathering of medical history
  • Records review
other health disabilities
Other Health Disabilities
  • Standardized academic assessment
  • OHD criteria worksheet
  • Systematic observations
  • Interviews
  • Review and gathering of medical history
  • Records review
traumatic brain injury
Traumatic Brain Injury
  • TBI criteria checklist/worksheet
  • Medical documentation
  • Functional impairment related to TBI (not result of pre-existing condition)
traumatic brain injury1
Traumatic Brain Injury
  • Information from subjective data Checklists
    • Work samples
    • Medical history
    • Observations
    • Interviews
  • Information from objective data
    • Criterion-referenced measures
    • Personality or projective measures
    • Sociometric measures
    • Standardized assessment of intelligence, achievement, communication and sensory/motor ability
special considerations
Special Considerations
  • Adaptations to evaluation for students with physical impairments
    • Alteration of presentation
    • Modification of test materials
    • Alternative response formats
    • Documentation of adaptations
  • Reduced verbal or motor response
    • Test of Non-Verbal Intelligence (TONI)
    • Comprehensive Test of Non-Verbal Intelligence
special considerations1
Special Considerations
  • Accommodations to State-wide testing
    • Role of P/HD teacher
      • Providing accommodations and modifications
      • Adapting or providing alternative tasks
    • Material accessibility and project formats
      • Video or audio presentations
      • Internet searches
      • Interviews
      • Powerpoint presentations
      • Slideshows
      • Assistive technology
  • Alternate assessment
    • Checklist
    • Portfolio
resources for p hd teacher
Resources for P/HD Teacher
  • Reference tools
    • Physical Impairment Handbook
    • Other Health Disabilities Handbook
    • Traumatic Brain Injury Handbook
  • Consultation to medical community
  • Representation at state network meetings and conferences
physical and health disabilities

Physical and Health Disabilities

Curricular Adaptations and Instruction

literacy and language arts
Literacy and Language Arts
  • Emergent and beginning literacy
    • Adapted books
    • AAC devices
  • Conventional literacy
    • Nonverbal reading
    • Assistive technology
    • Curricular-based
  • Functional literacy
    • Sight word vocabulary
    • Sign language facilitation
    • Picture/symbol association
    • Phonics approach
literacy and language arts1
Literacy and Language Arts
  • Barriers
    • Language and participation
    • Motor ability
    • Exposure
    • Access issues
    • Unique learning characteristics and physical condition
literacy and language arts2
Literacy and Language Arts
  • Overcoming barriers
    • Communication
      • Restricted participation
        • Reliable means of response (RMR)
        • Error not due to physical limitation
      • Lack of language experiences
        • Multi-modal AAC
        • Responding to natural attempts
        • Encourage social communication
    • Physical access
      • Impaired access to reading and writing
        • Physical efficiency areas
          • Positioning
          • Movement and work surface adaptations
          • Fine-motor movement and accessing materials
          • Range of motion for material placement
          • Fatigue and endurance issues
literacy and language arts3
Literacy and Language Arts
  • Overcoming barriers
    • Individual considerations
      • Addressing attendance
      • Response to pain or discomfort
      • Feedback for medication effects
    • Experiential deficits
      • Avoid broad assumptions
      • Maintain expectations
      • Increase exposure
    • Environment and instructional barriers
      • Provide environmental control
      • Address time factor
      • Access to equipment and AT
emergent and beginning literacy
Emergent and Beginning Literacy
  • Book and print exposure/awareness
  • Participation in storybook reading
  • Repetition and choice
  • Phonemic awareness
  • Letter-sound correspondence
conventional literacy
Conventional Literacy
  • Assessment
    • Structural analysis
    • Semantic analysis
  • Phonics
  • Vocabulary instruction
    • Symbols to words to sentences
  • Fluency
  • Comprehension
  • Access issues
  • Modifications and adaptations
  • Developmental strategies
  • Systematic instruction of written expression
  • Functional writing
  • Barriers
    • Motor impairments
    • Limited participation and practice
    • Individual factors
    • Lack of experience
    • Not making connection between reading and writing
    • Difficulty access environment and instruction
  • Overcoming barriers
    • Using writing tools
      • Utensils and paper adaptations
      • Modified writing instruction
      • High-tech assistive technology
    • Spelling interventions
      • Knowledge vs. access
      • Instructional strategies
      • Tools
    • Accessing written expression
      • Early exposure and exploration
      • Systematic instruction
      • AT
    • Functional writing
      • Focus on skills in natural environments
      • Writing strategies - tools, pictures, copying, forms
science and social studies
Science and Social Studies
  • Curricular adaptations to allow access to materials and meaningful participation
  • Address reading levels
  • Incorporating assistive technology to provide access to background information
  • Adapting equipment for active involvement in science activities
science and social studies1
Science and Social Studies
  • Overcoming barriers
    • Lesson preparation
      • Content
      • Instructional materials
      • Textbook sequence
      • Access to text
      • Supplemental activities and materials
    • Background knowledge
    • Lesson presentation
    • Real-world connection
    • Evaluation content knowledge
  • Level of involvement
    • Academic math skills
    • Functional math skills
    • Combination
  • Barriers
    • Motor skills
    • Endurance and motivation
    • Language ability
    • Literacy skills
    • Attention
    • Cognition and perception
  • Methods
    • Based on previous learning
    • Systematic instructional strategies
      • Demonstration to guided practice to independence
      • Structured methods
      • Check for understanding
    • Active involvement
    • Learning strategies
      • Self-monitoring
      • Metacognition
      • Mnemonics
      • Self-instruction
    • Use of adaptations and assistive technology
  • Beginning math skills
    • Number awareness
    • Counting
    • Numerals and place values
  • Computational skills
    • Addition and subtraction
    • Multiplication and division
  • Calculator use
  • Word problems
  • Functional math
  • Assessment
    • Standardized achievement tests
    • Diagnostic tests
    • Curriculum-based measurement
    • Informal assessment
    • Portfolio assessment
    • Error analysis
assistive technology
Assistive Technology
  • Research AT for curricular areas
  • Find adaptive equipment
  • Find software options
  • Find hardware options
physical and health disabilities1

Physical and Health Disabilities

Grading and Graduation

impact of adaptations on grading
Impact of Adaptations on Grading
  • Personal views of impact our perceptions of grading
  • Dependent on whether rigor of the content has been changed
  • Minimal training provided
  • Special educators should be consulted
    • Purpose of grading
    • Best practices for grading systems
    • Specialized grading systems
impact of adaptations on grading1
Impact of Adaptations on Grading
  • Assignment of grades is not always clear
    • included students are at increased risk for low or failing grades
    • teachers report feeling pressured or obligated to give students a higher grade than they had earned to allow the student to pass or because it seems fair
    • teachers may respond to the needs of individual students by making informal grading adaptations that are not implemented systematically
impact of adaptations on grading2
Impact of Adaptations on Grading
  • Three options
    • attempting to apply the same grading system used for general education students to students with disabilities
    • developing a grading system for a special class
    • individualizing an existing grading system to meet the needs of a particular student
purpose of grading
Purpose of Grading
  • What is the system designed to measure or report?
  • What is the value of grading to student, parent, teacher?
  • Possible outcomes:
    • Effort, progress in curriculum, independence
    • Measure of improvement, comparative data, progress towards goals
    • Cooperative work, future needs
case study
Case Study
  • Physically disabled student in art class
grading systems
Grading Systems
  • Features that benefit students with disabilities
    • Increased weight to most recent scores
    • Flexible due dates
    • Avoiding grade penalties due to behavior
  • Features that allow students to demonstrate knowledge in different ways
    • Blended assignments
    • Providing formative and summative assessments
    • Ample numbers of assessments over period of time
grading adaptations
Grading Adaptations
  • Prioritizing content and related assignments
  • Considering student effort
  • Considering “processing” of information
  • Incorporating IEP objectives into grades
  • Considering improvement from past reports
  • Changing weights or altering grading scale
case study1
Case Study
  • LD/ADHD student in Social Studies
grading options
Grading Options
  • Prioritizing Content and Related Assignments
  • Basing Part of Grade on Progress on IEP goals
  • Basing Part of Grade on Processes Used to Complete the Work
  • Basing part of Grade on Student's Effort
grading options1
Grading Options
  • Basing a Grade on Improvement Over Past Performance
  • Changing Grading Scales or Weights
  • Selecting the Best Grading Adaptation for Your Student
case study2
Case Study
  • LD student in Math
  • Honors diploma/diploma of high distinction
  • Standard diploma
  • Certificate of completion/attendance
  • Certificate of achievement
  • IEP/special education diploma
  • Occupational diploma
sped 447 547

SPED 447/547

Assistive Technology Needs for Students with Physical and Health Disabilities

categories of at
Categories of AT
  • Academic and communication needs
    • Communication
    • Computer Access
    • Education and Learning
  • Home and community needs
    • Daily Living
    • Environmental
    • Recreation and Leisure
  • Vocational
    • Ergonomics
categories of at1
Categories of AT
  • Motor
    • Mobility and Transportation
    • Prosthetics and Orthotics
    • Seating and Positioning
  • Sensory
    • Hearing and Listening
    • Vision and Reading
    • Multi-Sensory
  • Services
communication aids
Communication Aids
  • Products and equipment designed to help persons with speech disabilities or writing difficulties to communicate. At its very simplest, augmentative communication can be a page with picture choices or alphabet letters that a person points to. It can also involve highly sophisticated speaking computers with on-screen communication boards and auditory or visual scanning.
communication aids1
Communication Aids
  • Speech and Augmentative Communication Aids - Alternative and Augmentative Communication (AAC) involves alternate methods of communicating needs, feelings, ideas, and perceptions through the use of electronic and non-electronic devices that provide a means for expressive and receptive communication for persons with limited or no speech. Includes communication boards, speech synthesizers, text-to-speech software and hardware, head wands, light pointers, mouth sticks, signal systems, telephony equipment, etc.
communication aids2
Communication Aids
  • Writing and Typing Aids - Includes tactile devices, Braille devices, note taking devices, spelling devices, word prediction/completion software, modified typewriters, portable typewriters, etc. Does not generally include products intended to facilitate computer access and usage (see 2. Computer Access Aids).
computer access aids
Computer Access Aids
  • Hardware and software products that enables persons with disabilities to access, interact with, and use computers at home, work or school. Includes modified or alternate keyboards, switches activated by pressure, touch screens, special software, voice to text software, etc.
computer access aids1
Computer Access Aids
  • Alternative Input Devices - Includes alternative and adaptive keyboards, expanded keyboards, Key-guards, alternative and ergonomic mouse/pointing systems, head-operated pointing devices, Eye-gaze pointing devices, mouth/tongue pointing devices, Morse code input devices, brain-actuated pointing devices, switches, touch screens, voice input systems, speech-to-text software, voice recognition/voice command software, dictation software, on-screen keyboards, cursor enlargement software, ergonomic computer-based equipment, etc.
computer access aids2
Computer Access Aids
  • Alternative Output Devices - Computer-based output devices that generally enable Blind and Vision impaired persons to use or interact with a computer. Includes Braille display/output devices, Braille embosser/printers, screen reading software, screen magnification/enlargement software, large print monitor, etc.
computer access aids3
Computer Access Aids
  • Special Software - Includes adapted software applications for people with disabilities, operating system adaptations for accessibility, accessible web browsers, etc.
  • Universal Design - Design methods, techniques and guidelines for making computers and their applications fully accessible to people with disabilities.
daily living aids
Daily Living Aids
  • Self-help devices that assist persons with disabilities in daily living activities such as dressing, personal hygiene, bathing, home maintenance, cooking, eating, etc. Includes reachers, adaptive clothing, modified eating utensils, adapted books, pencil holders, dressing aids, adapted personal hygiene aids, bathing accessories, feeding accessories, feeding devices, grab bars/grips/handles, grooming, hygiene, incontinent supplies, mechanical transfer lift, shower/bath chair, toileting accessories, transfer board, wheeled bath chair/commode, time management aids, specialized spoons for self-feeding, bathtub seats, etc. Does not generally include architectural/home adaptations or modifications (see 5. Environmental Aids).
education and learning aids
Education and Learning Aids
  • Cognitive Aids - Includes cognitive software focusing on categorization, matching, association, reasoning, decision making, problem solving, memory skills, perceptual skills, talking word processing, word prediction/completion software, cognitive retraining or rehabilitation tools, etc.
  • Early Intervention Aids
daily living aids1
Daily Living Aids
  • Clothing and Dressing Aids
  • Eating and Cooking Aids
  • Home Maintenance Aids
  • Toileting and Bathing Aids
environmental aids
Environmental Aids
  • Environmental and structural adaptations that remove or reduce physical barriers for individuals with disabilities. Environmental adaptations usually involve building construction, engineering and architecture, but also include environmental controls and switches that can control an entire living environment.
environmental aids1
Environmental Aids
  • Environmental Controls & Switches - Primarily electronic systems that enable someone with limited mobility to control various appliances, lights, telephone and security systems in their room, home or other surroundings. Includes Environmental Control Units (ECU), electronic appliance switches, switch mounting systems, home automation systems, signaling and alerting devices, home alarms, television adaptations, smoke alarm and telephone ringers, etc.
environmental aids2
Environmental Aids
  • Home-Workplace Adaptations - Includes worksite/school/home design or modification for accessibility, architectural accommodations, structural adaptations, building/home ramps, home elevators, wheelchair lifts, pool lifts, bathroom changes, automatic door openers, expanded doorways, adapted furniture, adapted doorknobs, alternative doorbells, lowered counters, specially designed bath areas, etc.
recreation and leisure aids
Recreation and Leisure Aids
  • Products that help persons with disabilities to participate in sports, social, cultural events. Includes modified sports equipment for skiing/biking/running/boating, audio description for movies, adaptive controls for video games, adaptive fishing rods, cuffs for grasping paddles or racquets, seating systems for boats, etc.
recreation and leisure aids1
Recreation and Leisure Aids
  • Sports Aids
  • Toys and Games
  • Travel Aids
ergonomic equipment
Ergonomic Equipment
  • Low-tech assistive equipment or devices designed to reduce the likelihood of repetitive stress injuries often associated with work related situations. Includes adjustable workstations, industrial workstations, office workstations, adapted furniture, writing aids, modified seating and lighting, arm/wrist supports, back supports, etc. Does not generally include products intended to facilitate computer access and usage (see 2. Computer Access Aids).
mobility and transportation aids
Mobility and Transportation Aids
  • Products that help mobility impaired persons move within their environment and give them independence in personal transportation. Includes standing/walking aids, transfer aids, stair lifts, walkers, scooters, wheelchairs and three-wheeled chairs, adapted bikes and Trikes, car seats/bed, stretchers, patient chairs, ramps, recliners, strollers, travel chairs, wheelchair trays, driving controls, seat belts, vehicle conversions, patient and wheelchair lifts, wheelchair loaders/carriers, wheelchair restraint systems, etc.
mobility and transportation aids1
Mobility and Transportation Aids
  • Ambulatory Aids - Includes canes, cane accessories, crutches, walkers, walker accessories, etc.
  • Scooters and powerchairs
  • Wheelchairs
  • Vehicle Conversions - Includes car-top carriers, custom cars and vans, adaptive driving control, hand-controls, child restraint systems, ramps, lifts, etc.
prosthetics and orthotics
Prosthetics and Orthotics
  • Replacement, substitution or augmentation of missing or malfunctioning body parts with artificial limbs or other orthotic aids. Includes splints, braces, foot orthosis, helmets, restraints, supports, etc.
seating and positioning aids
Seating and Positioning Aids
  • Products that provide mobility impaired persons with greater body stability, maintain upright posture, provide trunk/head support and reduction of pressure to the skin. Includes adapted and modular seating, cushions and wedges, contour seats, lumbar support seats, standing tables, positioning belts, braces, wheelchair modifications and cushions, seat lifts, bolster chairs, corner chairs, therapeutic seats, postural support hardware, postural support systems, pressure monitors, etc.
hearing and listening aids
Hearing and Listening Aids
  • Products designed to assist the Deaf and Hearing Impaired. Includes assistive listening devices, hearing aids, cochlear implants, infrared/personal amplification systems, audio/FM loop systems, FM amplification systems, TV amplifiers, TV decoders, visual signaling and alerting systems, tactile alerting systems, telephony and accessories, text telephones, TDDs/TTYs devices, adapted phones, etc. Does not generally include products intended to facilitate computer access and usage (see 2. Computer Access Aids).
vision and reading aids
Vision and Reading Aids
  • Products designed to assist the Blind and Visually impaired. Includes auditory and speech output devices, reading machines, scanning/document reading systems, OCR systems, electronic book readers, talking equipment (clocks/watches, calculators, etc.), Braille devices, Braille transcription and translation devices, screen magnifier/enlarger, closed circuit television (CCTV) for magnifying documents, book holders, manual and electric page turners, large button phones, speaker phones, large print books, taped/audio books, etc. Does not generally include products intended to facilitate computer access and usage (see 2. Computer Access Aids).
multi sensory
  • Environmental stimulation - environments that are rich in multi-sensory opportunities
  • Sensory feedback from materials or toys - sensory feedback is integrated into materials or toys to provide facilitation or calming influence, to increase interest, to provide sensory feedback and to encourage participation.
  • Multi-sensory activities - opportunities to engage in activities that provide sensory feedback to encourage participation and motivation
  • Support services for people with disabilities or their caregivers to help them select, acquire, or use adaptive devices. Services also include functional evaluations, training on or demonstration of devices, and purchasing or leasing devices.