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Direct Democracy. Referendums like Quebec 1980 and 1995. Switzerland. Representative Democracy. Government in which people elect representatives who hold the decision making power. Large public elections only happen every 4-5 years.

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Direct Democracy

Referendums like Quebec 1980 and 1995


representative democracy
Representative Democracy
  • Government in which people elect representatives who hold the decision making power. Large public elections only happen every 4-5 years.
  • Example: USA or India (presidential democracy), Japan (parliamentary democracy)
  • Canada is a parliamentary democracy
  • combined with a monarchy called a Constitutional Monarchy



Representative Democracy

Germany 1990-present day


Constitutional Monarchy

A system of government in which a monarch (king, queen, prince, duke, etc.) is bound by a constitution whereby his/her rights, duties, and responsibilities are spelled out in written law or by custom.

The monarch is not actively involved in policy formation or implementation (i.e., the exercise of sovereign powers by a monarch in a ceremonial capacity); rather, true governmental leadership is carried out by a cabinet and its head - a prime minister, premier, or chancellor - who are drawn from a legislature (parliament).

New Zealand Jamaica Denmark Canada Holland




Constitutional Monarchy



Absolute Monarchy

Louis XIV

The most famous example of an absolute monarch is Louis XIV. He ruled France 1643-1715. He was called the Sun King and he once said “L'État, c'estmoi “(The state is me),

aristocracy oligarchy
Aristocracy (Oligarchy)
  • Form of government in which the power is in the hands of a few persons or a small group, who have the power of a dictator
  • Often the rich and / or educated
  • Example: South Africa (Apartheid), Ancient Greece

Florence (city in Italy)


Corporate Oligarchies occur when a few companies control a market


South Africa until 1994 was an oligarchy where the 20% white population controlled the country. The oligarchy was based on race and was called apartheid

The Medici Family was one of the families that controlled the city

  • Where the government owns all land and property, as well as distribution of goods and wealth
  • In theory, everyone is equal and works towards sharing the wealth
  • Example: China and Cuba


Union of Soviet Socialists Republic (USSR)

(RUSSIA) 1917-1990

The People’s Republic of China 1949-present day



Tiananmen Square Massacre 1989

fascism nazism
Fascism / Nazism
  • Facism is an authoritarian government that believes the interests of the state (gov’t) are more important than those of an individual or society
  • It seeks a type of national unity, usually based on, but not limited to, ethnic, cultural or racial attributes
  • Example: Germany under Hilter, Italy
  • under Mussolini


Nazi Germany 1933-1945 under

Adolph Hitler

Italy 1922-1943 under

Benito Mussolini

  • The government is controlled by religious leaders
  • Religious beliefs and documents (ie. The bible and the Qur’an) will greatly influence how the government runs the country (ie. Laws and punishments)
  • Example: Vatican City (Roman Catholic Church), Afghanistan (Taliban)



Taliban in Afghanistan

Vatican City

  • An economic / political system which trusts that competition between businesses will result in the best system.
  • Capitalism relies on private businesses to control themselves, as opposed to a government controlled economy
  • $$ Rules
  • Example: USA
  • Absence of government; a state of lawlessness due to beliefs that people are inherently good and can organize themselves without government
  • Example: 1970’s Punk Rock Movement (The Sex Pistols) Anarchy
  • New Orleans after the 2006 Hurricane Katrina; Haiti after the 2010 Earthquake.
military dictatorship
Military Dictatorship
  • Power is in the hands of one individual, who usually has the support or control of the army (military)
  • The army makes sure the people follow what the dictator says, using force when necessary.
  • Example: Muammar al-Galdafiof Libya and Pervez Musharraf of Pakistan