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Russian & Ottoman Empires 1450s to 1700s

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Russian & Ottoman Empires 1450s to 1700s. History of Russia timeline. Volga Bulgaria 7th-13th c. Kievan Rus 9th-12th c. Novgorod Republic 12th -14th c. Mongol Invasion 1220-1240’s Golden Horde 1240’s -1480’s Muscovy 1340-1547 Khanate of Kazan 1438-1552 Tsardom of Russia 1547-1721

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history of russia timeline
History of Russia timeline
  • Volga Bulgaria 7th-13th c.
  • Kievan Rus 9th-12th c.
  • Novgorod Republic 12th -14th c.
  • Mongol Invasion 1220-1240’s
  • Golden Horde 1240’s -1480’s
  • Muscovy 1340-1547
  • Khanate of Kazan 1438-1552
  • Tsardom of Russia 1547-1721
  • Russian Empire 1721-1917
1240 1480 mongol rule
1240-1480 Mongol Rule

A Mongol kingdom centered around Moscow had begun.

ivan iii the great 1462 1505
Ivan III, the Great (1462-1505)
  • In the 15th C, grand princes of Moscow continued to increase land, population, and wealth
  • Laid foundations of Russian national state
  • Fall of Constantinople and emergence of New Rome and seat of Orthodox Christianity
  • Proclaimed his absolute sovereignty over all Russian princes and nobles
  • Refused further tribute to the Mongols

Ivan III Tearing the Great Khan’s Letter Requesting More Tribute in 1480.

ivan iii r 1462 1505 ivan the great
Ivan III (r. 1462-1505), Ivan the Great
  • Divided Russia into khanates and hordes
  • Created Manor system
  • Expanded military control
  • Forced lesser princes to accept him and his successors as unquestioned rulers
  • Emerged as autocratic ruler
ivan iv r 1533 1584 ivan the terrible
Ivan IV (r. 1533-1584), Ivan the Terrible
  • Subordinated nobles, exiling and executing many
  • Oversaw conquest of Tartary and Siberia and
  • Saw transformation of Russia into a multiethnic state.
time of troubles 1598 1613
Time of Troubles (1598-1613)
  • Russian Inquisition left thousands dead
  • Ivan IV murdered his son and daughter-in-law who was carrying his grandson
  • No true successor to crown
  • Internal chaos attracts Polish-Lithuanian intervention and installment of “tsars”
  • Vast lands acquired under Ivan III lost
romanov dynasty 1613 1917
Romanov Dynasty(1613-1917)
  • Restored peace and reclaimed lost lands from Polish-Lithuanian commonwealth and Sweden
  • Boyars cooperated with the first Romanovs
  • Enserfedof peasants
  • Great burden of taxation placed on peasants
  • All segments of population were subject to military and special taxes

Romanov Family Crest

the tsars power becomes absolutist
The Tsars power becomes absolutist
  • Councils of Russian nobles were eliminated
  • Trained bureaucrats came from “lower classes” in the government and military instead of nobles being officials
  • The secret police & the Tsar’s special forces suppressed rebellion.
peter i the great r 1682 1725
Peter I, the Great (r. 1682-1725)
  • Consolidated autocracy in Russia and brought country into European state system
  • Largest state in the world from Baltic to Pacific Ocean
  • Window to the sea and the Great Northern War
  • New Capital, St. Petersburg, a window opened to Europe to replace the cultural center of Moscow
new openness to the west 1689 1725 tsar peter the great
New Openness to the West 1689-1725 Tsar Peter the Great
  • Forced Westernization
  • Modernized the army, built a navy, and continued expansion
  • Instituted an educational system
  • Offered freedom for women

Organized and modernized trade and commerce.

  • Pushed for Western dress, architecture, science &
  • Shaved BEARDS!
russian empire
Russian Empire
  • Peter I took the title of emperor and tsar and the Russian Tsardom officially became the Russian Empire in 1721
  • Government organized on Western models
  • Died in 1725 and led to succession battle that would eventually end with a German Princess who married the German heir to the Russian throne, Catherine II aka The Great
  • Russia remained a traditional agricultural society.
  • Nobles continued to control the lower classes.
    • Serfdom was expanded and rural peasants suffered
    • Little freedom was offered to the lower classes
  • Social unrest and revolt was common

The Pendulum of Russian History

Pro-WestFor Progress & ChangeEncourage New Ideas,Technologies, etc.


  • A few Tsars
  • Intellectual elites
  • Merchants/businessmen
  • Young members of the middle class.
  • Most Tsars
  • Russian Orthodox Church
  • Military
  • Boyars
  • peasants



where did the ottomans come from
Where did the Ottomans come from?

Name came from “Osman,” a leader of a western Anatolian nomadic group who began expansionistic moves in the 14th century.

Gradually these nomads took over Anatolia and became the border between Islam and Byzantine Christian


The Conquest of Constantinople = the Imperial phase of the Ottomans

    • Constantinople was renamed Istanbul
    • Mehmet II cleaned up the city and began many building mosques, markets, water fountains, baths, and other public facilities

Ottoman Economic/Political System

Millet system (non-Muslims formed small communities and were allowed to keep their faith (Jewish or Christian) as long as they paid the jitza (a tax)

Local officials were replaced by Ottoman government officials


Ottoman Economic/Political System

  • Devshirme
    • Christian youths captured(sometimes given) by the Ottoman agents and recruited for the Imperial civil service and standing army
      • Converted to Islam
      • The brightest 10% entered the Palace school and were trained for civil service
      • The others were sent to Turkish farms and were trained for toughness = Janissaries
      • Janissaries were the elite army corps who were absolutely loyal to the Sultan
the harem
The Harem
  • Sacred place, sanctuary, place of honor, respect, and religious purity
  • Private quarters of the family – not visited by non-family members (female visitors were allowed, but not common)
  • Boys remained with their mothers in the harem until the ages of 10-11