review molecular formula l.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Review-Molecular Formula PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Review-Molecular Formula

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 66

Review-Molecular Formula - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Review-Molecular Formula. Nicotine, a component of tobacco, has an empirical formula of C 5 H 7 N. The molar mass of nicotine is 162 g. What is its molecular formula? A compound contain 64.9% C, 13.5% H, and 21.6% O. Its molecular mass is 74 g. Find the molecular formula.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Review-Molecular Formula' - hoang

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
review molecular formula
Review-Molecular Formula
  • Nicotine, a component of tobacco, has an empirical formula of C5H7N. The molar mass of nicotine is 162 g. What is its molecular formula?
  • A compound contain 64.9% C, 13.5% H, and 21.6% O. Its molecular mass is 74 g. Find the molecular formula.
chapter objectives
Chapter Objectives
  • 1. To learn to write chemical equations
  • 2. To correctly interpret chemical equations
  • 3. To balance chemical equations
chapter objectives4
Chapter Objectives
  • 4. To classify chemical reactions
  • 5. To predict products of chemical reactions
  • 6. To write ionic and net ionic equations
chemical reactions
Chemical Reactions
  • In a chemical reaction, substances join together to form new substances
  • The original substances present are called REACTANTS
  • The new substances formed are called PRODUCTS
discussion of chemical reactions
Discussion of Chemical Reactions
  • The general form of an equation is:
  • Reactants  Products
  • The  is read as “yields” or “reacts to produce”
discussion of chemical reactions7
Discussion of Chemical Reactions
  • A + B  C
  • Substance “A” and “B” react to produce substance “C”
additional symbols in chemical reactions
Additional Symbols in Chemical Reactions
  • + used to separate reactants or products
  • (s) means chemical is in solid state
  • (l) means chemical is in liquid state
additional symbols in chemical reactions9
Additional Symbols in Chemical Reactions
  • (g) means chemical is in gas state
  • (aq) means chemical is dissolved in water
  • *See Table 10-1 in book (page 278)
other symbols
Other Symbols
  •  means something is added to the reaction
    • Usually this is heat
  • Pt means a catalyst (Pt) is added
skeleton equations
Skeleton Equations
  • Skeleton (Formula) Equation- the rough form of an equation
  • It only shows the framework for the chemical reaction
write skeleton equations
Write Skeleton Equations
  • Sodium metal reacts with Oxygen gas to form solid Sodium Oxide
  • Solid sulfur reacts with Fluorine gas to form gaseous Sulfur Hexafluoride when heated
  • Nitrogen reacts with Hydrogen to form Ammonia (NH3) gas. Heat is required.
review write skeleton equations
Review-Write Skeleton Equations
  • 1. Magnesium metal reacts with Chlorine to form solid Magnesium Chloride.
  • 2. Aqueous Silver Nitrate reacts with aqueous Sodium Chloride to form solid Silver Chloride and aqueous sodium nitrate
law of conservation of mass
Law of Conservation of Mass
  • The Law of Conservation of Mass states that mass is neither created or destroyed in a chemical reaction
  • Because of this Law, it is necessary to balance chemical equations
balancing chemical equations
Balancing Chemical Equations
  • In balanced chemical equations, each side of the equation has the same number of atoms of each element
  • Coefficientsare used to balance chemical equations
  • What is the difference between a coefficient and subscript?
  • Coefficients are written before the formulas
  • Subscripts are part of the formula
  • Never use SUBSCRIPTS to balance an equation!!
rules for balancing equations
Rules for Balancing Equations
  • 1. Determine the correct formulas for the reactants and products
  • 2. Write the formulas for the reactants on the left side of the arrow. Write the formulas for the products on the right side of the arrow
rules continued
Rules Continued
  • 3. Count the number of atoms of each element present on both sides of the equation
  • 4. Balance the elements one at a time by placing coefficients in front of the formula.
  • 5. Check to make sure each atom is balanced
additional rules
Additional Rules
  • 6. Check to make sure that all coefficients are in the lowest possible ratio
  • **If no coefficient is written, the coefficient is assumed to be “1”
  • Balance the following
  • H2 (g) + O2 (g)  H2O (l)
  • Na (s) + Br2 (g)  NaBr (aq)
  • AgNO3 (aq) + Cu(s)  Cu(NO3)2 (aq) + Ag(s)
  • Complete Worksheet
review balance the following
Review-balance the following
  • 1. Fe + O2  Fe2O3
  • 2. Al2O3 + H2 Al + H2O
quiz review balance
Quiz Review - Balance
  • 1. FeCl3 + NaOH  Fe(OH)3 + NaCl
  • 2. CuCl2 + NaI  CuI2 + NaCl
  • 3. H2O2  H2O + O2
  • 1) C6H6 + O2 CO2 + H2O
  • 2) Mg + O2  MgO
quiz review
  • 1. Solid sulfur reacts with gaseous fluorine to produce aqueous sulfur hexafluoride
  • 2.Magnesium metal reacts with chlorine gas to make solid magnesium chloride
additional questions
Additional Questions
  • Pb(NO3)2 + 2 NaOH  Pb(OH)2 + 2 NaNO3
  • How many oxygen atoms are on the reactant side?
  • How many oxygen atoms are in 2 NaNO3?
balancing equations determining formulas
Balancing Equations -Determining Formulas
  • To Balance Equations, you must remember how to write correct chemical formulas
  • Write the balanced equation for solid aluminum reacting with oxygen gas to form solid aluminum oxide
  • **Remember that the diatomic elements (Mr. BrINClHOF) appear with a subscript of two when alone
additional examples
Additional Examples
  • 1. Carbon reacts with Chlorine to form Carbon Tetrachloride
  • 2. Magnesium metal reacts with solid Zinc (II) Carbonate to form solid Magnesium Carbonate and Zinc metal
  • 3. Nitrogen gas reacts with Hydrogen gas to form Ammonia (NH3) gas
types of reactions
Types of Reactions
  • There are five general types of reactions:
  • Synthesis
  • Decomposition
  • Single Displacement
  • Double Displacement
  • Combustion
synthesis reactions
Synthesis Reactions
  • Synthesis reactions are also called combination reactions
  • A synthesis reaction occurs when two substances combine to form a new compound
synthesis reaction continued
Synthesis Reaction Continued
  • The general form of a synthesis reaction is:
  • A + X AX
  • Substance “AX” is the only substance formed
examples of synthesis reactions
Examples of Synthesis Reactions
  • 2 Mg (s) + O2 (g)  2 MgO (s)
  • Fe (s) + Cl2 (g)  FeCl2 (s)
  • U (s) + 3 F2 (g)  UF6 (g)
decomposition reaction
Decomposition Reaction
  • In decomposition reactions, one substance breaks down (decomposes) into two or more simpler substances
decomposition reactions cont
Decomposition Reactions Cont.
  • General Form of Decomposition Reaction:
  • AX A + X
examples of decomposition reactions
Examples of Decomposition Reactions
  • 2 HgO (s)  2 Hg (l) + O2 (g)
  • Ca(OH)2  CaO (s) + H2O (g)
  • H2SO4 (aq)  SO3 (g) + H2O (l)


write correct balance equations
Write Correct Balance Equations
  • 1. The synthesis of KCl
  • 2. The decomposition of magnesium oxide
  • 3. The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) into oxygen and water
write correct balance chemical equations for the following reactions
Write Correct Balance Chemical Equations for the following reactions
  • 1. The synthesis of barium fluoride
  • 2. The decomposition of Mg(OH)2 into magnesium oxide and water
  • 3. The decomposition of water
review write balanced equations
Review-Write Balanced Equations
  • 1. Gaseous hydrogen reacts with gaseous chlorine to form aqueous hydrogen chloride
  • 2. Carbon monoxide gas reacts with gaseous oxygen to form solid carbon dioxide
write balanced equations
Write balanced equations
  • 1. The synthesis of Iron (III) oxide
  • 2. The decomposition of cobalt (IV) oxide
  • 3. The decomposition of calcium hydroxide into calcium oxide and water
write balanced equations41
Write Balanced Equations
  • 1) Na + Cl2
  • 2) HgCl2
  • 3) Fe(OH)3
single replacement reaction
Single Replacement Reaction
  • In a single replacement reaction (also called a displacement reaction), an element reacts with a compound
  • A + BX AX + B
examples of single replacement reactions
Examples of Single Replacement Reactions
  • Mg + Zn(NO3)2  Mg(NO3)2 + Zn
  • Mg + 2 AgNO3  Mg(NO3)2 (aq) + 2 Ag
rules for single replacement reactions
Rules for Single Replacement Reactions
  • Not all single replacement reactions occur
  • You can determine if a reaction will occur by knowing the activity series of metals (See Handout)
rules for single replacement
Rules for Single Replacement
  • The activity series tell you if one metal can replace another metal in a reaction
  • The Activity Series is ordered
  • Any metal that is above another metal in the activity series WILL REPLACE the less reactive metal
activity series













Activity Series
predict if the following reactions will occur
Predict if the following reactions will occur
  • 1. Fe + H2O
  • 2. Mg + LiNO3
  • 3. Na + AgCl
write balanced equations for the following reactions
Write balanced equations for the following reactions
  • 1. Mg + O2
  • 2. FeCl3
  • 3. Fe + ZnO 
  • 4. Br2 + MgI2 
  • Predict the products and balance:
  • 1) Mg + O2
  • 2) HCl 
  • 3) Na + H2SO4 
  • 4) Ag + ZnCl2 
double displacement reactions
Double Displacement Reactions
  • In a double displacement reaction, two compounds react
  • The compounds swap elements with each other
double displacement cont
Double Displacement Cont
  • Compounds contain a positive and negative part
  • In a double displacement, the positive parts swap places with each other as do the negative parts
  • PbCl2 (s) + Li2SO4 (aq)  PbSO4 (s) + 2 LiCl (aq)
  • ZnBr2 (aq) + 2 AgNO3 (aq)  Zn(NO3)2 (aq) + 2 AgBr (s)
predict the products of the following reactions and balance
Predict the Products of the following reactions and balance
  • BaCl2 (aq) + KClO3 (aq) 
  • HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) 
  • RbBr (aq) + AgCl (aq) 
combustion reactions
Combustion Reactions
  • In a combustion reaction, a Hydrocarbon (compound containing Hydrogen and Carbon) reacts with Oxygen (O2)
  • The products are CO2 and H2O
  • 2 C6H6 + 15 O212 CO2 + 6 H2O
  • *Combustion Reactions commonly require large coefficients
guided practice
Guided Practice
  • Write the balanced equation for the following combustion reactions:
  • a. C4H8
  • b. C6H12O6
  • c. C7H16
independent practice predict the products for the following reactions
Independent Practice- Predict the products for the following reactions
  • 1. Hf + N2 (Hf takes a +4 charge)
  • 2. Mg + H2SO4 
  • 3. C2H6 + O2 
  • 4. Pb(NO3)2 + NaI 
  • 5. Fe + O2  (Fe takes a +3 charge)
ionic equations
Ionic Equations
  • Most ionic compound dissociate (or break apart) when dissolved in water to form its component ions
  • For example: NaCl (aq) really looks like Na+(aq) and Cl- (aq)
soluble vs precipitate
Soluble Vs. Precipitate
  • Soluble means that the compound breaks down into its ions in water
  • Ex) NaCl is soluble so it forms Na+ and Cl-
  • Insoluble means that the compound doesn’t break down in water
precipitate reactions
Precipitate Reactions
  • In double replacement reactions, often one of the product will be insoluble
  • The insoluble product is referred to as a precipitate
  • Precipitate Rules are on the EOC sheet
  • Determine if soluble or insoluble:
  • A) NaCl B) K2O
  • C) Fe(NO3)3 D) AgCl
  • E) BaS F) Cd(OH)2
  • G) FeCl3 H) PbCO3
ionic equations continued
Ionic Equations Continued
  • To write a Complete Ionic Equation:
  • Write the aqueous substances as ions (leave any substances in gas, liquids, & solids alone)
  • Example:
  • AgNO3 (aq) + NaCl (aq)  AgCl (s) + NaNO3 (aq)
writing ionic equations
Writing Ionic Equations
  • 1. (NH4)2S (aq) + Cd(NO3)2 (aq)  NH4NO3 (???) + CdS (???)
  • 2. Zn(NO3)2 (aq) + (NH4)2S (aq)  ZnS (???) + NH4NO3 (???)
spectator ions
Spectator Ions
  • Spectator Ions-Ions that are not directly involved in a reaction
  • Spectator ions show up on both sides of the equation
  • Spectator Ions cancel out
net ionic equations
NET Ionic Equations
  • Net Ionic Equation-Indicate the particles that actually take part in a reaction
  • The Net Ionic Equation does NOT include spectator ions
  • Net Ionic Equations must be balanced according to atoms and charge
write net ionic equations
Write Net Ionic Equations
  • 1. (NH4)2S (aq) + Cd(NO3)2 (aq) 
  • 2. Zn(NO3)2 (aq) + (NH4)2S (aq) 