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Review-Molecular Formula. Nicotine, a component of tobacco, has an empirical formula of C 5 H 7 N. The molar mass of nicotine is 162 g. What is its molecular formula? A compound contain 64.9% C, 13.5% H, and 21.6% O. Its molecular mass is 74 g. Find the molecular formula.

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review molecular formula
Review-Molecular Formula
  • Nicotine, a component of tobacco, has an empirical formula of C5H7N. The molar mass of nicotine is 162 g. What is its molecular formula?
  • A compound contain 64.9% C, 13.5% H, and 21.6% O. Its molecular mass is 74 g. Find the molecular formula.
chapter objectives
Chapter Objectives
  • 1. To learn to write chemical equations
  • 2. To correctly interpret chemical equations
  • 3. To balance chemical equations
chapter objectives4
Chapter Objectives
  • 4. To classify chemical reactions
  • 5. To predict products of chemical reactions
  • 6. To write ionic and net ionic equations
chemical reactions
Chemical Reactions
  • In a chemical reaction, substances join together to form new substances
  • The original substances present are called REACTANTS
  • The new substances formed are called PRODUCTS
discussion of chemical reactions
Discussion of Chemical Reactions
  • The general form of an equation is:
  • Reactants  Products
  • The  is read as “yields” or “reacts to produce”
discussion of chemical reactions7
Discussion of Chemical Reactions
  • A + B  C
  • Substance “A” and “B” react to produce substance “C”
additional symbols in chemical reactions
Additional Symbols in Chemical Reactions
  • + used to separate reactants or products
  • (s) means chemical is in solid state
  • (l) means chemical is in liquid state
additional symbols in chemical reactions9
Additional Symbols in Chemical Reactions
  • (g) means chemical is in gas state
  • (aq) means chemical is dissolved in water
  • *See Table 10-1 in book (page 278)
other symbols
Other Symbols
  •  means something is added to the reaction
    • Usually this is heat
  • Pt means a catalyst (Pt) is added
skeleton equations
Skeleton Equations
  • Skeleton (Formula) Equation- the rough form of an equation
  • It only shows the framework for the chemical reaction
write skeleton equations
Write Skeleton Equations
  • Sodium metal reacts with Oxygen gas to form solid Sodium Oxide
  • Solid sulfur reacts with Fluorine gas to form gaseous Sulfur Hexafluoride when heated
  • Nitrogen reacts with Hydrogen to form Ammonia (NH3) gas. Heat is required.
review write skeleton equations
Review-Write Skeleton Equations
  • 1. Magnesium metal reacts with Chlorine to form solid Magnesium Chloride.
  • 2. Aqueous Silver Nitrate reacts with aqueous Sodium Chloride to form solid Silver Chloride and aqueous sodium nitrate
law of conservation of mass
Law of Conservation of Mass
  • The Law of Conservation of Mass states that mass is neither created or destroyed in a chemical reaction
  • Because of this Law, it is necessary to balance chemical equations
balancing chemical equations
Balancing Chemical Equations
  • In balanced chemical equations, each side of the equation has the same number of atoms of each element
  • Coefficientsare used to balance chemical equations
question
Question
  • What is the difference between a coefficient and subscript?
  • Coefficients are written before the formulas
  • Subscripts are part of the formula
  • Never use SUBSCRIPTS to balance an equation!!
rules for balancing equations
Rules for Balancing Equations
  • 1. Determine the correct formulas for the reactants and products
  • 2. Write the formulas for the reactants on the left side of the arrow. Write the formulas for the products on the right side of the arrow
rules continued
Rules Continued
  • 3. Count the number of atoms of each element present on both sides of the equation
  • 4. Balance the elements one at a time by placing coefficients in front of the formula.
  • 5. Check to make sure each atom is balanced
additional rules
Additional Rules
  • 6. Check to make sure that all coefficients are in the lowest possible ratio
  • **If no coefficient is written, the coefficient is assumed to be “1”
examples
Examples
  • Balance the following
  • H2 (g) + O2 (g)  H2O (l)
  • Na (s) + Br2 (g)  NaBr (aq)
  • AgNO3 (aq) + Cu(s)  Cu(NO3)2 (aq) + Ag(s)
classwork
Classwork
  • Complete Worksheet
review balance the following
Review-balance the following
  • 1. Fe + O2  Fe2O3
  • 2. Al2O3 + H2 Al + H2O
quiz review balance
Quiz Review - Balance
  • 1. FeCl3 + NaOH  Fe(OH)3 + NaCl
  • 2. CuCl2 + NaI  CuI2 + NaCl
  • 3. H2O2  H2O + O2
slide24
QUIZ
  • 1) C6H6 + O2 CO2 + H2O
  • 2) Mg + O2  MgO
quiz review
QUIZ REVIEW
  • 1. Solid sulfur reacts with gaseous fluorine to produce aqueous sulfur hexafluoride
  • 2.Magnesium metal reacts with chlorine gas to make solid magnesium chloride
additional questions
Additional Questions
  • Pb(NO3)2 + 2 NaOH  Pb(OH)2 + 2 NaNO3
  • How many oxygen atoms are on the reactant side?
  • How many oxygen atoms are in 2 NaNO3?
balancing equations determining formulas
Balancing Equations -Determining Formulas
  • To Balance Equations, you must remember how to write correct chemical formulas
example
Example
  • Write the balanced equation for solid aluminum reacting with oxygen gas to form solid aluminum oxide
  • **Remember that the diatomic elements (Mr. BrINClHOF) appear with a subscript of two when alone
additional examples
Additional Examples
  • 1. Carbon reacts with Chlorine to form Carbon Tetrachloride
  • 2. Magnesium metal reacts with solid Zinc (II) Carbonate to form solid Magnesium Carbonate and Zinc metal
  • 3. Nitrogen gas reacts with Hydrogen gas to form Ammonia (NH3) gas
types of reactions
Types of Reactions
  • There are five general types of reactions:
  • Synthesis
  • Decomposition
  • Single Displacement
  • Double Displacement
  • Combustion
synthesis reactions
Synthesis Reactions
  • Synthesis reactions are also called combination reactions
  • A synthesis reaction occurs when two substances combine to form a new compound
synthesis reaction continued
Synthesis Reaction Continued
  • The general form of a synthesis reaction is:
  • A + X AX
  • Substance “AX” is the only substance formed
examples of synthesis reactions
Examples of Synthesis Reactions
  • 2 Mg (s) + O2 (g)  2 MgO (s)
  • Fe (s) + Cl2 (g)  FeCl2 (s)
  • U (s) + 3 F2 (g)  UF6 (g)
decomposition reaction
Decomposition Reaction
  • In decomposition reactions, one substance breaks down (decomposes) into two or more simpler substances
decomposition reactions cont
Decomposition Reactions Cont.
  • General Form of Decomposition Reaction:
  • AX A + X
examples of decomposition reactions
Examples of Decomposition Reactions
  • 2 HgO (s)  2 Hg (l) + O2 (g)
  • Ca(OH)2  CaO (s) + H2O (g)
  • H2SO4 (aq)  SO3 (g) + H2O (l)



write correct balance equations
Write Correct Balance Equations
  • 1. The synthesis of KCl
  • 2. The decomposition of magnesium oxide
  • 3. The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) into oxygen and water
write correct balance chemical equations for the following reactions
Write Correct Balance Chemical Equations for the following reactions
  • 1. The synthesis of barium fluoride
  • 2. The decomposition of Mg(OH)2 into magnesium oxide and water
  • 3. The decomposition of water
review write balanced equations
Review-Write Balanced Equations
  • 1. Gaseous hydrogen reacts with gaseous chlorine to form aqueous hydrogen chloride
  • 2. Carbon monoxide gas reacts with gaseous oxygen to form solid carbon dioxide
write balanced equations
Write balanced equations
  • 1. The synthesis of Iron (III) oxide
  • 2. The decomposition of cobalt (IV) oxide
  • 3. The decomposition of calcium hydroxide into calcium oxide and water
write balanced equations41
Write Balanced Equations
  • 1) Na + Cl2
  • 2) HgCl2
  • 3) Fe(OH)3
single replacement reaction
Single Replacement Reaction
  • In a single replacement reaction (also called a displacement reaction), an element reacts with a compound
  • A + BX AX + B
examples of single replacement reactions
Examples of Single Replacement Reactions
  • Mg + Zn(NO3)2  Mg(NO3)2 + Zn
  • Mg + 2 AgNO3  Mg(NO3)2 (aq) + 2 Ag
rules for single replacement reactions
Rules for Single Replacement Reactions
  • Not all single replacement reactions occur
  • You can determine if a reaction will occur by knowing the activity series of metals (See Handout)
rules for single replacement
Rules for Single Replacement
  • The activity series tell you if one metal can replace another metal in a reaction
  • The Activity Series is ordered
  • Any metal that is above another metal in the activity series WILL REPLACE the less reactive metal
activity series
Li

K

Ca

Na

Mg

Al

Zn

Fe

Pb

H*

Cu

Hg

Ag

Activity Series
predict if the following reactions will occur
Predict if the following reactions will occur
  • 1. Fe + H2O
  • 2. Mg + LiNO3
  • 3. Na + AgCl
write balanced equations for the following reactions
Write balanced equations for the following reactions
  • 1. Mg + O2
  • 2. FeCl3
  • 3. Fe + ZnO 
  • 4. Br2 + MgI2 
review
Review
  • Predict the products and balance:
  • 1) Mg + O2
  • 2) HCl 
  • 3) Na + H2SO4 
  • 4) Ag + ZnCl2 
double displacement reactions
Double Displacement Reactions
  • In a double displacement reaction, two compounds react
  • The compounds swap elements with each other
double displacement cont
Double Displacement Cont
  • Compounds contain a positive and negative part
  • In a double displacement, the positive parts swap places with each other as do the negative parts
examples52
Examples
  • PbCl2 (s) + Li2SO4 (aq)  PbSO4 (s) + 2 LiCl (aq)
  • ZnBr2 (aq) + 2 AgNO3 (aq)  Zn(NO3)2 (aq) + 2 AgBr (s)
predict the products of the following reactions and balance
Predict the Products of the following reactions and balance
  • BaCl2 (aq) + KClO3 (aq) 
  • HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) 
  • RbBr (aq) + AgCl (aq) 
combustion reactions
Combustion Reactions
  • In a combustion reaction, a Hydrocarbon (compound containing Hydrogen and Carbon) reacts with Oxygen (O2)
  • The products are CO2 and H2O
example55
Example
  • 2 C6H6 + 15 O212 CO2 + 6 H2O
  • *Combustion Reactions commonly require large coefficients
guided practice
Guided Practice
  • Write the balanced equation for the following combustion reactions:
  • a. C4H8
  • b. C6H12O6
  • c. C7H16
independent practice predict the products for the following reactions
Independent Practice- Predict the products for the following reactions
  • 1. Hf + N2 (Hf takes a +4 charge)
  • 2. Mg + H2SO4 
  • 3. C2H6 + O2 
  • 4. Pb(NO3)2 + NaI 
  • 5. Fe + O2  (Fe takes a +3 charge)
ionic equations
Ionic Equations
  • Most ionic compound dissociate (or break apart) when dissolved in water to form its component ions
  • For example: NaCl (aq) really looks like Na+(aq) and Cl- (aq)
soluble vs precipitate
Soluble Vs. Precipitate
  • Soluble means that the compound breaks down into its ions in water
  • Ex) NaCl is soluble so it forms Na+ and Cl-
  • Insoluble means that the compound doesn’t break down in water
precipitate reactions
Precipitate Reactions
  • In double replacement reactions, often one of the product will be insoluble
  • The insoluble product is referred to as a precipitate
  • Precipitate Rules are on the EOC sheet
practice
Practice
  • Determine if soluble or insoluble:
  • A) NaCl B) K2O
  • C) Fe(NO3)3 D) AgCl
  • E) BaS F) Cd(OH)2
  • G) FeCl3 H) PbCO3
ionic equations continued
Ionic Equations Continued
  • To write a Complete Ionic Equation:
  • Write the aqueous substances as ions (leave any substances in gas, liquids, & solids alone)
  • Example:
  • AgNO3 (aq) + NaCl (aq)  AgCl (s) + NaNO3 (aq)
writing ionic equations
Writing Ionic Equations
  • 1. (NH4)2S (aq) + Cd(NO3)2 (aq)  NH4NO3 (???) + CdS (???)
  • 2. Zn(NO3)2 (aq) + (NH4)2S (aq)  ZnS (???) + NH4NO3 (???)
spectator ions
Spectator Ions
  • Spectator Ions-Ions that are not directly involved in a reaction
  • Spectator ions show up on both sides of the equation
  • Spectator Ions cancel out
net ionic equations
NET Ionic Equations
  • Net Ionic Equation-Indicate the particles that actually take part in a reaction
  • The Net Ionic Equation does NOT include spectator ions
  • Net Ionic Equations must be balanced according to atoms and charge
write net ionic equations
Write Net Ionic Equations
  • 1. (NH4)2S (aq) + Cd(NO3)2 (aq) 
  • 2. Zn(NO3)2 (aq) + (NH4)2S (aq) 