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Unit test Review. Be prepared to demonstrate knowledge about: -use of archetypes in novel -how Characters develop themes - how Conflict develops theme (Good VS Evil) defend your notion of the hero of the novel with evidence Victorian era values Features of a Gothic setting in the novel

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unit test review

Unit test Review

Be prepared to demonstrate knowledge about:

-use of archetypes in novel

-how Characters develop themes

- how Conflict develops theme (Good VS Evil)

defend your notion of the hero of the novel with evidence

Victorian era values

Features of a Gothic setting in the novel

Character foils and purposes

setting mood
Setting & Mood
  • How does the gothic setting contribute to the overall mood or atmosphere of the novel?

Give examples of how Bram Stoker uses setting to create a specific atmosphere.

features a gothic setting
Features a Gothic Setting -

Old Castle


features the supernatural above and beyond what is natural
Features the Supernatural – above and beyond what is natural

Dracula becomes a bat

A Vampire is Undead

intense feelings
Intense feelings

Fear – dread - scared

Trapped - stuck – unable to move


A Vampire must be killed with a stake, or be decapitated

from bram stoker s dracula
from Bram Stoker’s “Dracula”
  • “The Thing in the coffin writhed; and a hideous, blood-curdling screech came from the opened red lips. The body shook and quivered and twisted in wild contortions; the sharp white teeth champed together till the lips were cut, and the mouth was smeared with a crimson foam.”
imagine the scene and feel the emotion
Imagine the scene and feel the emotion
  • List words which describe the emotion evoked in the description.
vampires key conflict good vs evil
Vampires: Key Conflict Good VS Evil

What do they want?

What are they afraid of?

Being staked

Holy water


Religious symbols



Not finding their coffin to sleep during the day

  • They want your blood
  • To suck your blood
  • To kill you
  • To turn you into a vampire
  • to turn you into an undead
  • To control your mind
the goal is to shock the reader
The Goal is to Shock the reader!
  • Innocence is corrupted
  • Attraction to evil
  • Repulsion
  • Fear of the unknown
in the end
In the end...

Characters are tested

Good wins over evil...

discussion victorian era values
Discussion: Victorian Era Values
  • When the vampire Lucy is to be destroyed, why is it significant that Arthur is the one to strike the blow that sets her free? What comments on female sexuality in the Victorian era might Stoker have been making in this scene?
  • Female sexuality for the average Victorian era woman simply did not exist. Woman were to be chaste before marriage and after marriage they were considered the property of the husband. A woman was to be faithful to one man throughout life. Publically the woman was expected to be modest and subservient to her husband. A public display of open sexual aggression as displayed by the “undead” Lucy would be shocking and only seen in a brothel.
  • The men in the novel vowed not to let Arthur know that they each gave of their blood in the blood transfusion. Lucy was to marry one man, and the knowledge that other men’s blood was in her veins (even if that blood was meant to save her life) would seem too personal and invasive to a man promised to marry her.
  • The “setting free” of Lucy’s spirit is effected with a wooden stake struck into her heart, an invasive action that implies dominance by brutal strength. Therefore, Stoker establishes a clear message that the sexual allure of a vampire seductress is no match for the will of the man she was to marry (even a human one).
  • Even though they did not marry and did not consummate the marriage, Arthur still retains the right to “stake” (pardon the pun) claim to Lucy’s mortal body and eternal soul.
reflection on inversion of christian practices

Reflection on Inversion of Christian practices:

Note that both Count Dracula and Renfield mention that drinking blood will bring eternal

life. Discuss how this could be a twisted parallel to the Christian practice of Holy

Communion. Why is it significant that Renfield does not want to be responsible for the

souls of the creatures he eats? How does that create a contrast for Count Dracula?


Compare and contrast Lucy and Mina.

    • Mina is the New Age woman.
    • Lucy is the typical Victorian Age woman whose goal is to secure a husband suited to her social standing.
  • Compare and contrast Jonathan, Quincy, and Arthur.
  • Examine the following themes in Dracula. What message does Bram Stoker seem to be

sending to his readers about each theme?

  • a. good vs. evil c. the power of fear
  • b. the power of love d. the power of compassion
theme good vs evil the reaffirmation of christian faith
Theme: Good Vs EvilThe reaffirmation of Christian Faith

Good wins out over evil.

The characters of Renfield, Lucy, and Mina demonstrate how easily humans can be corrupted by the lure of power and the escape of death.

The power of good is illustrated in the band of men who work together to defeat the evil Dracula.

The power of evil is illustrated in Count Dracula who seems invincible throughout the novel. Dracula means devil.

The ending implies that good triumphs over evil in the end, with help from God.

theme of the power of love
Theme of the Power of Love
  • Mina’s love for Jonathan restores him to health following his ordeal at the Count’s castle.
  • Jonathan’s love for Mina keeps her from the Count’s lure for them to follow the vampire back to his home country.
  • In both situations, the character’s tie to one another assists in the defeat of the vampire.
theme of fear
Theme of Fear
  • Fear is central to a gothic novel.
  • Fear is embodied in the vampire.
  • The conquering of fear is required of the men before they can attempt to defeat the vampire.
  • The facing and conquering of fear was the most difficult task faced by Jonathan after his imprisonment. Once conquered, his role was integral to the hunting and defeat of the vampire.
archetypal characters
Archetypal Characters
  • Thinking back the archetypal characters which appear in the gothic genre, examine what archetypal characters seem to appear over and over again (such as the Damsel in Distress, the Gallant but Tormented Hero, The Evil villain/Monster thatcomes in a variety of forms: vampires, wolfmen, “created” creatures, ghosts, etc.).
  • How did Bram Stoker use these archetypes in Dracula?
Convincing the Disbeliever in the supernatural. How does Jack Seward’s character help develop this in the novel?
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AFNz-Rm81BM
  • Use of Character Foils: Discuss how Stoker uses Character foils to highlight features of characters to develop theme.
  • Jack Seward & Van Helsing
  • Lucy and Undead Lucy
  • Mina and Lucy
characteristics of a vampire possessed by dracula
Characteristics of a Vampire Possessed by Dracula
  • he is potentially immortal
  • He survives on the blood of others
  • He has the strength of 20 men
  • He can shape shift into the form of the wolf or bat
  • He can appear as mist or elemental dust
  • he has no reflection in a mirror
  • He casts no shadow
  • He has hypnotic power over his victims (modern vampire lore calls this power “Compulsion”
  • He can turn victims into vampires
  • From p. 25 of The Vampire Handbook by Elizabeth Miller
unit test outline
Unit Test Outline
  • 15 multiple choice
  • 10 matching
  • 1 short essay (at least three paragraphs) 20 marks
who is the hero of dracula

Who is the Hero of Dracula?

There has been much debate about this question.

Van Helsing fits the definition of the Gothic hero in that he “combines the knowledge of the supernatural and of science as he leads the others.. to rid he world of Count Dracula.” (A Dracula Handbook) Without him, they would never have understood the nature of Lucy’s illness, and the Count would have been undefeated and unstoppable in the hunting grounds provided by London.

gothic hero
Gothic Hero
  • As David De Vore states:
  • The Gothic hero becomes a sort of archetype as we find that there is a pattern to their characterization. There is always the protagonist, usually isolated either voluntarily or involuntarily. Then there is the villain, who is the epitome of evil, either by his (usually a man) own fall from grace, or by some implicit malevolence. The Wanderer, found in many Gothic tales, is the epitome of isolation as he wanders the earth in perpetual exile, usually a form of divine punishment.
  • The plot of the Gothic novel itself mirrors the ruined world in its dealings with a protagonist's fall from grace as she succumbs to temptation from a villain. In the end, the protagonist must be saved through a reunion with a loved one.
  • (from http://cai.ucdavis.edu/waters-sites/gothicnovel/155breport.html)
mina as hero
Mina as Hero
  • Mina is a heroine in a time when women were just beginning to take on new roles in a world dominated by men. Women of the time could look to role models like the woman for which the era is named “Queen Victoria”, who was a monarch who ruled one of the most prosperous and peaceful nations in the world.
  • Early Feminist thinking was taking root in the writings of prominent writers like Mary Wolstencraft and Mary Shelly.
  • Mina provides the essential link link between Dracula as he travels back to Transylvania. She allows herself to be hypnotized and gives the hunters knowledge of the Count’s route.
  • She is essential to the ordering of documents necessary for all to have a clear understanding the creature which they are hunting. She transcribes, and duplicates the journals, clippings and phonograph diaries of all the first-hand accounts of the vampire’s activities.
  • Dracula is the Faustian character who has gained the gift of eternal life in exchange for the vampiric life which he leads.
  • He fits the definition of a Gothic hero in this respect
  • However, the reader is never allowed insight into his inner thoughts to confirm the notion he is a hero or to feel sympathy for him.
  • Stoker makes a great effort to describe him as a ruthless and unfeeling predator.
  • Therefore, Dracula cannot be the hero of the novel as Bram Stoker wrote it.

Character Development & Theme

  • Van Helsing: Van Helsing is a scholar, medical doctor, scientist, folklorist, professor, and theologian. He is man who is knowledgeable in many disciplines, and would be aware of the various theories and debates of the time regarding the origins of humanity and the scientific arguments which seems to dispute Christian theology. His faith in the strength of the Christian icons against the evil they face, reinforces the theme of the reaffirmation of Christian faith & the power of it against great evil.
  • Seward is confused and not sure what Helsing seems to try to help him discover on his own. It is not until the 19th chapter that Van Helsing fully explains to the hunters that they are facing a vampire. He asks Seward to keep an open mind to all possibilities of explanation for the re-emergence of bite marks on other victims following Lucy’s “death”. He cites hypnosis as a new science which Seward would have easily disbelieved . With this example, Seward more readily accepts the notion that Lucy is one of the “undead” once he sees her with his own eyes.

Character Development & Theme

  • Con’td Van Helsing. Throughout the novel, Van Helsing demonstrates the traits of a “learned man” who is able to glean information from a variety of disciplines and never doubts the existence of the supernatural or God; nor His Antithesis in the form of the evil vampire.
  • He is never confident that he will succeed in the battle but is grateful when he interprets the arrival of “good men” as God assisting in the fight. He says when Quincey arrives unexpectedly to provide Lucy a transfusion at an opportune time: “God send us good men when we are need of them.”a scholar, medical doctor, scientist, folklorist, professor, and theologian.
  • Despite his abilities and careful attention, he shows himself to be a man who is unsure of his ability to win the fight to save Lucy. He weeps openly in front of Seward when he arrives at Lucy’s house to realize that her mother opened the window during the night, leaving Lucy vunerable to the vampire. He is a brilliant scientist who realizes that arrogance can lead to tragedy, and is a contrast to other novels of the time whose main characters are scientists whose arrogance causes them to ignore this moral (Ex: Frankenstein).
  • He is the “Christian scientist” who successfully battles a great evil on earth , with God’s help.

Character Development & Theme

  • Seward Throughout the novel, Seward is the uncertain student who requires the help of Van Helsing to solve the mystery surrounding Lucy’s death and lead the fight against the vampire.
  • The reader understands the evil to be battled and the tools required to do this through as it is explained by Van Helsing to Seward.
vampire craze
Vampire Craze


1. What is your opinion on the speaker's views on the popularity of the Vampire lore in this century?

2. Is he accurately informed about the Stoker's depiction of Dracula's origins? (he states that Dracula is a vampire because he cursed God)

vampire craze continued
Vampire Craze (continued)

3. What are you certain about in Dracula's origins as a vampire as depicted in the novel? (How did he become one, and for what reason(s)?4. Do you believe the speaker has confused the movie with the text?5. Research the reasons why a vampire would fear symbols of Christianity.

6. What are some reasons Bram Stoker would have included this as an object to be feared by the vampire?

modern vampire craze do you agree or disagree with this author s view explain

Modern Vampire CrazeDo you agree or disagree with this author’s view? Explain.



What influence of gothic literature can be found in today’s movies? Video games?Could they be truly categorized as “Gothic”? Why or why not?