ADD/ADHD. By: Katlin & Caroline. Myth vs. Fact. Myth #1: All kids with ADD/ADHD are hyperactive. Fact: Some children are hyperactive, but many are not. Children who are inattentive, but not overly active, may appear to be spacey and unmotivated.
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ADD/ADHD By: Katlin & Caroline
Myth vs. Fact Myth #1: All kids with ADD/ADHD are hyperactive. Fact: Some children are hyperactive, but many are not. Children who are inattentive, but not overly active, may appear to be spacey and unmotivated. Myth #2: Kids with ADD/ADHD can never pay attention. Fact: Children are often able to concentrate on activities they enjoy. But no matter how hard they try, they have trouble maintaining focus when the task at hand is boring or repetitive. Myth #3: Kids with ADD/ADHD could behave better if they wanted to. Fact: Children may do their best to be good, but still be unable to sit still, stay quiet, or pay attention. They may appear disobedient, but that doesn’t mean they’re acting out on purpose. • Myth #4: Kids will eventually grow out of ADD/ADHD. • Fact: Often continues into adulthood. Treatment can help your child learn to manage and minimize the symptoms. • Myth #5: Medication is the best treatment option for ADD/ADHD. • Fact: Often prescribed, but it might not be the best option. Effective treatment also includes education, behavior therapy, support at home and school, exercise, and proper nutrition.
What is ADHD? Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity disorder Not simply difficulty with paying attention A problem with inattentiveness, over-activity, impulsivity, or a combination Neurobehavioral disorder Brain uses various chemicals to help send messages across the nervous system. Imbalance of these may result in the symptoms of ADHD Shows a persistent pattern that is more frequent and severe Challenging, but once you understand the problem, you can learn to compensate for areas of weakness and take advantage of strengths and talents
Causes and Risk Factors Affects 3-5% of school aged children Diagnosed more often in boys Exact cause of ADHD is unknown May be caused by one of more of the following: Genetics Neurotransmitter function Certain environmental factors - such as smoking during pregnancy or complications from pregnancy, delivery, or infancy Begins early in life during brain development Imaging studies suggest brains of children w/ADHD are different from other children Should be examined by a doctor to rule out other conditions or reasons Most have at least one other developmental or behavior problem psychiatric problem depression or bipolar
Primary Characteristics Many people living with ADHD may struggle with the symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Children with ADD/ADHD may be: Inattentive, but not hyperactive or impulsive. Hyperactive and impulsive, but able to pay attention. Inattentive, hyperactive, and impulsive (the most common form of ADD/ADHD). 3 Subtypes: Inattentive type: When a person experiences 6 or more symptoms of inattention for at least 6 months. Fewer than 6 of the hyperactive/impulsive symptoms of ADHD may be present. Hyperactive/Impulsive type: When a person experiences 6 or more symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity for at least 6 months. Fewer than 6 of the inattentive symptoms of ADHD may be present. Combined type: When a person experiences 6 or more symptoms of inattention and 6 or more hyperactive/impulsive symptoms of ADHD for at least 6 months. Children who only have inattentive symptoms of ADD/ADHD are often overlooked, since they’re not disruptive. However, the symptoms of inattention have consequences: getting in hot water with parents and teachers for not following directions; underperforming in school; or clashing with other kids over not playing by the rules.
Types Many people living with ADHD may struggle with the symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. 3 Subtypes: Inattentive type: When a person experiences 6 or more symptoms of inattention for at least 6 months. Fewer than 6 of the hyperactive/impulsive symptoms of ADHD may be present. Hyperactive/Impulsive type: When a person experiences 6 or more symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity for at least 6 months. Fewer than 6 of the inattentive symptoms of ADHD may be present. Combined type: When a person experiences 6 or more symptoms of inattention and 6 or more hyperactive/impulsive symptoms of ADHD for at least 6 months.
Symptoms • Hyperactivity • Fidgeting/squirming • Leaving seat • Excessive running/climbing • Difficulty with quiet activities • “On the go” • Excessive talking • Always moving Lack of attention Careless mistakes/lack of attention to details Lack of sustained attention Poor listener Failure to follow through on tasks Poor organization Avoids tasks requiring sustained mental effort Losing things Easily distracted Forgetful in daily activities • Impulse Behavior • Blurting out answers • Can’t wait turn • Intrusive • Problems with self-control • Invade other’s space • Ask irrelevant questions in class
Diagnosis Symptoms must: Include 6 or more inattentive and/or hyperactive/impulsive symptoms Be present in at least 2 life situations Cause significant impairment in functioning Continue to occur for 6 or more months to an extent that is not consistent with one's peers Be present and impair functioning before age 7 Not be better accounted for by another mental disorder Usually diagnosed in childhood Who can diagnose? More that 15 million Americans are estimated to be affected In 2007 Over 5 million or 9.5% of school-aged children
Is It really ADHD? Certain medical conditions, psychological disorders, and stressful life events can cause symptoms Important to see a mental health professional to explore and rule out the following possibilities: Learning disabilities Major life events or traumatic experiences Psychological disorders Behavioral disorders Medical conditions, including thyroid problems, neurological conditions, epilepsy, and sleep disorders.
Treatment Partnership between health care provider, caregivers, and child Combination of therapy and medication works best Set specific, appropriate target goals to guide therapy Start medication and behavior therapy Follow-up regularly with doctor If treatment does not work Make sure child is actually ADHD Check for other possible medications Is the treatment plan being followed? Medications stimulants, have a calming effect on people w/ADHD Adderall, Focalin, Dexedrine, Vyvanse, and Ritalin Some medications have been linked to rare sudden death in children with heart problems
Positive Effects in Children Creativity – Can be marvelously creative and imaginative, Can become a master problem-solver, a fountain of ideas, or an inventive artist, sometimes they notice what others don’t see Flexibility – They consider a lot of options at once, they don’t become set on one alternative early on and are more open to different ideas. Enthusiasm and spontaneity – Rarely boring, interested in a lot of different things and have lively personalities Energy and drive – When motivated, they work or play hard and strive to succeed. May be difficult to distract them from a task that interests them. Keep in mind, too, that ADD/ADHD has nothing to do with intelligence or talent. Many children with ADD/ADHD are intellectually or artistically gifted.
School Tips Think of what the school setting requires children to do: Sit still. Listen quietly. Pay attention. Follow instructions. Concentrate. These are the very things kids with ADD/ADHD have a hard time doing—not because they aren’t willing, but because their brains won’t let them. Start with evaluating each child’s individual weaknesses and strengths, then coming up with creative strategies for helping the child focus, stay on task, and learn to his or her full capability. Support Strategies: Communicate with school and teachers Develop and use a behavior plan ADD / ADHD and school: Tips for making learning fun One positive way to keep your child's attention focused on learning is to make the process fun. Using physical motion in a lesson, connecting dry facts to interesting trivia, or inventing silly songs that make details easier to remember can help your child enjoy learning and even reduce the symptoms of ADD/ADHD. Helping children with ADD/ADHD enjoy math Children who have attention deficit disorder tend to be “concrete” thinkers. They often like to hold, touch, or take part in an experience in order to learn something new. By using games and objects to demonstrate mathematical concepts, you can show your child that math can be meaningful—and fun. Play games. Use memory cards, dice, or dominoes to make numbers fun. Or simply use your fingers and toes, tucking them in or wiggling them when you add or subtract. Draw pictures. Especially for word problems, illustrations can help kids better understand mathematical concepts. If the word problem says there are twelve cars, help your child draw them from steering wheel to trunk. Invent silly acronyms. In order to remember order of operations, for example, make up a song or phrase that uses the first letter of each operation in the correct order. Helping children with ADD/ADHD enjoy reading There are many ways to make reading exciting, even if the skill itself tends to be a struggle for children with ADD/ADHD. Keep in mind that reading at its most basic level made up of stories and interesting information—things that all children enjoy. Read to children. Read with children. Make reading cozy, quality time with you. Make predictions or “bets.” Constantly ask the child what they think might happen next. Model prediction: “The girl in the story seems pretty brave—I bet she’s going to try to save her family.” Act out the story. Let the child choose his or her character and assign you one, too. Use funny voices and costumes to bring it to life.
Did you know? Many refer to condition as ADD, but is no longer in widespread use For those diagnosed with ADD, correct terminology is ADHD, Predominately Inattentive Type Research does not support ideas that it’s caused from: Too much sugar Too much television Parenting Social/environmental factors However, these may make it worse
Data & Statistics American Psychiatric Association states 3-7% of school aged children have ADHD Parents report ~9.5% of 4-17 year olds have been diagnosed as of 2007 Percentage of children w/a parent-diagnosis increased by 22% from 2003 and 2007 Rates of ADHD increased among older teens compared to younger children Highest rates of parent-reported diagnosis were among children covered by Medicaid and multiracial children Prevalence of parent-reported ADHD varied by state
Data & Statistics Cont’d In 2007 2.7 million 4-17 year old were receiving medication treatment for ADHD children ages 11-17 were more likely than those 4-10 to take medication boys are 2.8 times more likely than girls to take medication ~5% of children w/ ADHD do not have a learning disability Parents of children w/ADHD report 3 times as many peer problems Parents report children w/ADHD are 10 times as likely to have difficulties that interfere with friendships Children with ADHD are more likely to have major injuries Data suggests that people with ADHD are more likely to: Have motor vehicle accidents Drink and drive Have traffic violations
Economic Cost Annual societal “cost of illness” for ADHD is between $36 and $52 billion Estimated to be between $12,005 and $17,458 annually per individual Were an estimated 7 million ambulatory visits for ADHD in 2006 Projected that ADHD was associated with 143.8 million lost days of productivity each year across 10 countries Workers w/ADHD are more likely to have at least one sick day per month compared to workers w/out