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  1. Analyze Techniques Yellow Belt Program

  2. Outline • Define various techniques • When to use techniques • How to use techniques

  3. Analyze Techniques • Brainstorming • Affinity Diagram • Cause and Effect Diagram • Why-Why Diagram • Scatter Diagram • Basic Statistic • Frequency Diagrams • Histograms • Process Maps • Time Value Analysis

  4. Brainstorming and Associated Techniques

  5. Brainstorming • Generate • Problems • Opportunities • Ideas • No • Arguing • Criticism • Negativism • Evaluation • Generate ideas

  6. Affinity Diagram • Using in brainstorming • Organize ideas • Useful • Chaos • Too many ideas • Breakthrough thinking • Broader issues

  7. Affinity Diagram: How To • Generate ideas • Display ideas • Sort ideas • Create group theme • Record findings

  8. Affinity Diagram: How To • Generate ideas – Team members brainstorm to generate ideas for the solution

  9. Affinity Diagram: How To • Display Ideas – Each team member of the brainstorming team writes one idea per Post it note and put up on the wall • Developed new orientation & annual competency educational materials for nurses Single location to collect transmitters established on each unit when removed from patients after telemetry is discontinued New checklist-based logs implemented to simplify recording & summarization/analysis • Writing patient name on transmitter pouches and institute double-check procedures to verify new patient set up Developed departmental procedure for routinely testing red phones • Discontinuing daily pager tests • As a new order process, order form is to be faxed to CMU • New order form for specification of type of monitoring needed and specification of parameters

  10. Affinity Diagram: How To • Sort Ideas – The ideas are sorted into groups where each idea under a group is related to the other ideas. The members can discuss during this tasks or opt to do it discretely. Single location to collect transmitters established on each unit when removed from patients after telemetry is discontinued New checklist-based logs implemented to simplify recording & summarization/analysis • Writing patient name on transmitter pouches and institute double-check procedures to verify new patient set up • Discontinuing daily pager tests • New order form for specification of type of monitoring needed and specification of parameters • Developed new orientation & annual competency educational materials for nurses • As a new order process, order form is to be faxed to CMU Developed departmental procedure for routinely testing red phones

  11. Affinity Diagram: How To 4. Create Group theme – After the grouping of the ideas, each group is provided a theme or a header appropriately. Nurses Maintenance Single location to collect transmitters established on each unit when removed from patients after telemetry is discontinued New checklist-based logs implemented to simplify recording & summarization/analysis • Writing patient name on transmitter pouches and institute double-check procedures to verify new patient set up • Discontinuing daily pager tests • New order form for specification of type of monitoring needed and specification of parameters • Developed new orientation & annual competency educational materials for nurses Developed departmental procedure for routinely testing red phones • As a new order process, order form is to be faxed to CMU

  12. Cause and Effect Diagram • Fishbone • Identify causes • Helpful in brainstorming

  13. Cause and Effect: How To • Identify the problem or effect. • Identify the possible major causes. • Categorize the causes. • By function • By process sequence • Discuss potential causes related to major area. • Analyze the diagram. • CauseAndEffect.pptx

  14. Why-Why Diagram • Organize thinking • Chain of symptoms • 5-Whys • Identify problem • Why the problem exist • Root cause Why Why Why Why Why Why Why Why Why Why Why Why

  15. Data Analysis

  16. Scatter Diagram • Analyze relationships between two variables • Plotted on a graph • Independent variable • X axis • Variable being changed • Dependent variable • Y axis • Variable being observed y axis x axis

  17. Scatter Diagrams • Correlation • R2 • Between 0 and 1 • Greater that 0.8

  18. Statistics • Measures of Central Tendency • Mean • Median • Mode • Measures of Dispersion • Range • Standard Deviation • Variance

  19. Statistics • The “Mean” is the arithmetic average of a set of given numbers • The “Median” is the middle score in a set of given numbers • The “Mode” is the most frequently occurring score in a set of given numbers

  20. Statistics: Mean • Average • Where the data is gathered Where = average xi = value of sample i n = number of samples

  21. Statistics: Mean

  22. Statistics: Median Even Number of Samples Odd Number of Samples 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 2 3 5 7 8 9 2 3 5 8 9 n/2 = 6/2 = 3 n/2 + 1 = 4 (5 + 7)/2 = (12)/2 = 6 n/2+0.5 = 5/2 +0.5 = 2.5 + 0.5 = 3 Median = 5 Median = 6

  23. Statistics: Median

  24. Statistics: Mode • Most frequently occurring number Mode = 5

  25. Statistics: Mode

  26. Statistics • The Standard Deviation is a measure of how spread out numbers are. • The symbol is σ (Greek letter Sigma) • The formula is easy: It is the square root of the Variance. • "What is the Variance?" • The Variance is defined as: The average of the squared differences from the Mean http://www.mathsisfun.com/data/standard-deviation.html

  27. Statistics • To calculate the variance follow these steps: • Find the Mean as shown below • Then for each number: subtract the Mean and then square the result • Then work out the average of those squared differences. (Why Square?): Squaring each difference makes them all positive numbers (to avoid negatives reducing the Variance) and it also makes the bigger differences stand out • You and your friends have just measured the heights of your dogs (in millimeters):
 http://www.mathsisfun.com/data/standard-deviation.html

  28. Statistics • You have just measured the heights of your patients (in inches): • The heights (at the shoulders) are: 60 inches, 63 inches, 66 inches, 69 inches, 72 inches and 75 inches. • Find out the Mean, the Variance, and the Standard Deviation. http://www.mathsisfun.com/data/standard-deviation.html

  29. Statistics • Answer: • Your first step is to find the Mean: • Mean = 67.5 mm. http://www.mathsisfun.com/data/standard-deviation.html

  30. Statistics • Now, we calculate each patient difference from the Mean: • To calculate the Variance, take each difference, square it, and then average the result: http://www.mathsisfun.com/data/standard-deviation.html

  31. Statistics • So, the Variance is 26.25. • And the Standard Deviation is just the square root of Variance, so: • σ = √26.25 = 5.129... = 5 • Standard Deviation: σ = √26.25 = 5.129... = 5 (to the nearest mm) • And the good thing about the Standard Deviation is that it is useful. Now we can show which heights are within one Standard Deviation (5 inches) of the Mean:
 • This measure is indicative of knowing which patient is the tallest, has a normal height and which one is the shortest. http://www.mathsisfun.com/data/standard-deviation.html

  32. Statistics: Range • Spread of the data R = Xh - Xl Where R = range xh = highest x xl = lowest x xh = 9 xl = 2 R = 9 – 2 = 7

  33. Statistics: Standard Deviation and Variance • Measure of dispersion • How data is grouped Where s = standard deviation Xi = value of sample I = average n = number of samples Where s2 = variance Xi = value of sample I = average n = number of samples

  34. Statistics: Example n = 6 X(bar) = 6

  35. Statistics: Sum

  36. Statistics: Standard Deviation

  37. Statistics: Variance

  38. Frequency Diagrams • Number of times values occurred • X axis • Counts • Measured values • Y axis • Frequency • Number of occurrences

  39. Histograms • Similar to frequency diagrams • Grouped into a range of values

  40. Graphs: Examples • Let’s create in excel

  41. How To Communicate Findings