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## Psychrometrics – Lecture 1

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**Psychrometrics – Lecture 1**• Reading: • Chapter 9 in Henderson/Perry • Handouts Dr. C. L. Jones Biosystems and Ag. Engineering**Psychrometry**• Study of physical and thermal properties of air and water vapor mixtures. • Simply put: the science of drying Dr. C. L. Jones Biosystems and Ag. Engineering**Psychrometrics – Ideal Gas Law**• Where: p = absolute pressure V = volume N = number of kg-moles R = universal gas constant T = absolute temperature (K) Dr. C. L. Jones Biosystems and Ag. Engineering**Psychrometrics – Ideal Gas Law**• For a fixed number of moles of an ideal gas: • p1V1/T1=p2V2/T2 • For Mixtures…Dalton’s Law pg. 238 Dr. C. L. Jones Biosystems and Ag. Engineering**Psychrometrics – Definition of Terms**• Atmospheric air is always a mixture of dry air and water vapor. Physical and thermal quantities describe the state of the mixture… • Dry-bulb temperature: true temp. of the mixture • Saturation pressure: pressure where liquid and vapor forms of water are in equilibrium… evaporation rate = condensation rate • Use standard steam table or calculate (9.18) ln psat = 31.9602 – 6270.3605/T – 0.46057lnT (for 255.38 to 273.16 K) ln(psat/R’) = (A + BT + CT2 + DT3 + ET4)/(FT – GT2) (for 273.16 to 2533.16 K) K = C + 274.15 Dr. C. L. Jones Biosystems and Ag. Engineering**Psychrometrics – more terms**• Humidity ratio: mass of water vapor per unit mass of dry air • Relative humidity: measure of amount of water air can hold at a certain temperature • Specific Volume: vol. per unit mass of dry air at the state of the mixture…iow…space occupied by air…greater volume at warmer temperatures Dr. C. L. Jones Biosystems and Ag. Engineering**Psychrometrics – yet more terms**• Dew-Point Temperature: temperature at which water will begin to condense out of moist air. (constant humidity ratio and pressure) • Wet-bulb Temperature: determined when air is circulated past a wet sensor tip. Temp. at which water evaporates and brings the air to saturation. (constant enthalpy) (adiabatic process) • Enthalpy: heat energy content of moist air Dr. C. L. Jones Biosystems and Ag. Engineering**Psychrometrics**• Mollier vs. Traditional charts Dr. C. L. Jones Biosystems and Ag. Engineering**Psychrometrics**• Mollier vs. Traditional charts pg 252-253 Dr. C. L. Jones Biosystems and Ag. Engineering**Psychrometrics – State Points**• Find a point using two properties… • Can find all of the other 5 properties • This point is called the “state point” • Example: 25°C dry bulb and 18° C wet bulb • Find enthalpy, sp. vol., humidity ratio, rh, dewpoint Dr. C. L. Jones Biosystems and Ag. Engineering**Psychrometrics**• Mollier vs. Traditional charts Dr. C. L. Jones Biosystems and Ag. Engineering**Psychrometric Processes Application: condensation**A carton of eggs was removed from the refrigerator and left on the kitchen counter. The refrigerator was set at a temperature of 5oC and the kitchen at 24oC, 30% relative humidity. Will condensation occur (i.e., "sweat" appear on eggs)? (def. of dew point: temperature at which water will begin to condense out of moist air) SOLUTION The corresponding dew-point temperature at 24oC and 30% relative humidity is 4.5oC. Since 4.5oC < 5oC, condensation will not occur. Dr. C. L. Jones Biosystems and Ag. Engineering**Psychrometric Processes Application: power requirement for**heaters • Example 9.10 pg. 258 • Mass flow rate m = Q/v, • Q=vol. flow rate, • v=spec. vol. of air q = m(Δh) where q = rate of heat transfer So: q = (Q/v) Δh Dr. C. L. Jones Biosystems and Ag. Engineering**Psychrometric Processes**• Application example: power requirement for heaters • Example 9.10 pg. 258 • v = 0.8724 m^3/kg, • h1 = 55.8 kJ/kg, • h2 = 76.3 kJ/kg Dr. C. L. Jones Biosystems and Ag. Engineering