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REFER TO THE FOLLOWING ENERGY EFFICIENCEIS, EXPRESSED AS PERCENTAGES: A) 100% B) 95% C) 30% D) 15% E) 1%

REFER TO THE FOLLOWING ENERGY EFFICIENCEIS, EXPRESSED AS PERCENTAGES: A) 100% B) 95% C) 30% D) 15% E) 1%. APPROXIMATE EFFICIENCY OF AN AVERAGE COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT. APPROXIMATE EFFICIENCY OF THE CONVERSION OF LIGHT ENERGY TO CHEMICAL ENERGY IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS.

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REFER TO THE FOLLOWING ENERGY EFFICIENCEIS, EXPRESSED AS PERCENTAGES: A) 100% B) 95% C) 30% D) 15% E) 1%

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  1. REFER TO THE FOLLOWING ENERGY EFFICIENCEIS, EXPRESSED AS PERCENTAGES:A) 100% B) 95% C) 30% D) 15% E) 1% APPROXIMATE EFFICIENCY OF AN AVERAGE COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT. APPROXIMATE EFFICIENCY OF THE CONVERSION OF LIGHT ENERGY TO CHEMICAL ENERGY IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS. APPROXIMATE PERCENTAGE OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY CONVERTED TO HEAT IN THE AVERAGE INCANDESCENT LIGHTBULB. THE MAXIMUM EFFICIENCY POSSIBLE IN AN ENERGY-CONVERSION PROCESS THAT IS NOT LIMITED BY THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS.

  2. REFER TO THE FOLLOWING ENERGY EFFICIENCEIS, EXPRESSED AS PERCENTAGES:A) 100% B) 95% C) 30% D) 15% E) 1% APPROXIMATE EFFICIENCY OF AN AVERAGE COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT. C APPROXIMATE EFFICIENCY OF THE CONVERSION OF LIGHT ENERGY TO CHEMICAL ENERGY IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS. E APPROXIMATE PERCENTAGE OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY CONVERTED TO HEAT IN THE AVERAGE INCANDESCENT LIGHTBULB. B THE MAXIMUM EFFICIENCY POSSIBLE IN AN ENERGY-CONVERSION PROCESS THAT IS NOT LIMITED BY THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS. A

  3. REFER TO THE FOLLOWING PROCESSES:A) PHOTOSYNTHESIS B) EUTROPHICATION C) DENITRIFICATION D) DECOMPOSITION E) TRANSPIRATION 5. The rapid rate of this process in tropical forests results in low-nutrient soils. 6. The process in which glucose in synthesized by plants. 7. The process by which a soil nutrient is reduced and released to the atmosphere as a gas.

  4. REFER TO THE FOLLOWING PROCESSES:A) PHOTOSYNTHESIS B) EUTROPHICATION C) DENITRIFICATION D) DECOMPOSITION E) TRANSPIRATION 5. The rapid rate of this process in tropical forests results in low-nutrient soils. D 6. The process in which glucose in synthesized by plants. A 7. The process by which a soil nutrient is reduced and released to the atmosphere as a gas. C

  5. REFER TO THE FOLLOWING ELEMENTS:A) OXYGEN B) ALUMINUM C) IRON D) NITROGEN E) ARGON 8. The most abundant element in Earth’s crust. 9. The most abundant element in Earth’s atmosphere. 10. The most abundant element in Earth’s core. 11. The element commercially extracted from bauxite.

  6. REFER TO THE FOLLOWING ELEMENTS:A) OXYGEN B) ALUMINUM C) IRON D) NITROGEN E) ARGON 8. The most abundant element in Earth’s crust. A 9. The most abundant element in Earth’s atmosphere. D 10. The most abundant element in Earth’s core. C 11. The element commercially extracted from bauxite. B

  7. WHAT IS THE 2ND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS? (1of3) The Second Law of Thermodynamics is one of three Laws of Thermodynamics. The term "thermodynamics" comes from two root words: "thermo," meaning heat, and "dynamic," meaning power. Thus, the Laws of Thermodynamics are the Laws of "Heat Power." As far as we can tell, these Laws are absolute. All things in the observable universe are affected by and obey the Laws of Thermodynamics.

  8. WHAT IS THE 2ND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS (2 of 3) Second Law of Thermodynamics - Increased EntropyThe Second Law of Thermodynamics is commonly known as the Law of Increased Entropy. While quantity remains the same (First Law), the quality of matter/energy deteriorates gradually over time. How so? Usable energy is inevitably used for productivity, growth and repair. In the process, usable energy is converted into unusable energy. Thus, usable energy is irretrievably lost in the form of unusable energy.

  9. WHAT IS THE 2ND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS (3 of 3) "Entropy" is defined as a measure of unusable energy within a closed or isolated system (the universe for example). As usable energy decreases and unusable energy increases, "entropy" increases. Entropy is also a gauge of randomness or chaos within a closed system. As usable energy is irretrievably lost, disorganization, randomness and chaos increase.

  10. 1st LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS ENERGY IS CONSERVED WHEN BOTH A SYSTEM AND ITS SURROUNDINGS ARE CONSIDERED; THAT IS, ENERGY CAN NEITHER BE CREATED OR DESTROYED BUT MAY BE TRANSFORMED FROM ONE FORM TO ANOTHER, INCLUDING THE EXCHANGE OF ENERGY WITH ITS SURROUNDINGS.

  11. WRITE OUT THE CHEMICAL NAMES FOR THESE SYMBOLS C = O = H = 602 = ? CARBON OXYGEN HYDROGEN HOW MANY MOLECULES OF OXYGEN MAKE THE BREATHABLE FORM OF OXYGEN? HOW MANY OF THESE ARE IN THIS SYMBOL? 2 6

  12. WHAT IS THE EQUATION FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS? sunlight 6CO2 + 6H2O→ C6H12O6 + 6O2 carbon water, light dioxide and chlorophyllglucose oxygen Green plants are able to make food by producing ATP (a carrier for energy) and NADPH (a carrier for electrons used in the synthesis of glucose) in their chloroplasts, which then reduce carbon dioxide and water to form a carbohydrate (glucose) only in the presence of sunlight and chlorophyll. Basically plants transform radiant (solar) energy into chemical energy.

  13. WHAT IS THE CHEMICAL EQUATION FOR CELLULAR RESPIRATION C6H1206 + 6O2→ 6CO2 + 6H2O Carbon dioxide, water, and available energy are produced by the oxidation of glucose, also known as GLYCOLYSIS (glucosebreaking) This series of chemical reactions occurs in all living cells. The first step of this transformation of glucose takes place in the cytoplasm. The second step occurs in the mitochondria and requires oxygen. Some of the energy creates heat and the rest is used to replenish the supply of ATP. This is also known as FERMENTATION.

  14. TROPHIC LEVELS – energy pyramid The laws of thermodynamics apply to the energy flow through an ecosystem; therefore, less energy is available to organisms at each higher trophic level. This decreased amount of available energy at each trophic level is due to the amount of energy required by an organism to carry out the daily functions of living. It is estimated that only 10% of the energy at each trophic level is available to organisms a the next higher level. A CONSUMER (HETEROTROPH) RECEIVES ITS ENERGY FROM OTHER ORGANISMS. A PRODUCER (AUTOTROPH) MAKES ITS OWN FOOD BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS.

  15. TODAY IS MONDAY FEBRUARY 2ND, 2009. • Note cards are due today – please use paperclips and write your name on the first card. • Test today – 15 questions – please write the question.

  16. APES TEST • Draw the Trophic Levels Pyramid and define Autotroph and Heterotroph. • If a species eats animals that eat other animals that eat plants – what level are they in Trophic Levels Pyramid? • How much energy transfers from one level to the next on the TLP? • What is the approximate efficiency of the conversion of light energy to chemical energy in _____________?

  17. APES TEST 5. What is the approximate efficiency of an average coal-fired plant? 6. Which light bulbs use energy more efficiently, incandescent or CFL (compact fluorescent light bulbs)? 7. Give a 1 sentence example of decomposition? 8. Give a 1 sentence example of photosynthesis? 9. Give a 1 sentence example of denitrification.

  18. APES TEST 10. What is the most abundant element in Earth’s crust? 11. What is the element extracted from bauxite? 12. Give a 1 sentence definition for the 2nd law of thermodynamics. 13. Give a 1 sentence definition for the 1st law of thermodynamics.

  19. APES TEST 14. 6CO2 + 6H2O→ C6H12O6 + 6O2 What does this equation represent? How many TOTAL Oxygen atoms are represented? 15. C6H1206 + 6O2→ 6CO2 + 6H2O What does this equation represent? How many TOTAL Carbon atoms are represented?

  20. GREEN PLANTS PRODUCE MOST OF THE OXYGEN IN OUR ATMOSPHERE THROUGH A SERIES OF COMPLEX REACTIONS. Name and describe this generalized reaction. Green plants produce most of the oxygen in our atmosphere by photosynthesis. The generalized reaction for this process is often referred to as “the light reaction”. 6CO2 + 6H2O→ C6H12O6 + 6O2

  21. What is the role of ATP and NADPH in metabolism? What effect does the amount of light have on the metabolism of green plants? Green plants are able to make food by producing ATP (a carrier for energy) and NADPH (a carrier for electrons used in the synthesis of glucose) in their chloroplasts, which then reduce carbon dioxide and water to form a carbohydrate (glucose) only in the presence of sunlight and chlorophyll.

  22. THE AMOUNT OF LIGHT AVAILABLE IS CRITICAL FOR THIS PROCESS (PHOTOSYNTHESIS) TO OCCUR

  23. How does the flow of energy through an ecosystem conform to the laws of thermodynamics? Be sure to discuss its origination, transformation, and utilization. Ecosystems conform to the laws of ___________. The first law of T states that energy is conserved; that is, ________________________, but it may be converted from one form to another. An ecosystem is a closed system that receives energy from outside sources. The organisms making up the ecosystem transform this energy into useful forms for storage and later utilization. Students study photosynthesis as a transformation process producing _______ (____), which may then be accessed as an energy source for the organism. The second law of thermodynamics states that some energy is lost as “useless” energy, also known as _______. Therefore, energy enters the system; is converted to food, which is stored by the organism; energy is used in normal metabolic processes; and energy is dissipated to the atmosphere during the normal living processes of the organism.

  24. How does the flow of energy through an ecosystem conform to the laws of thermodynamics? Be sure to discuss its origination, transformation, and utilization. Ecosystems conform to the laws of thermodynamics. The first law of T states that energy is conserved; that is, energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it may be converted from one form to another. An ecosystem is a closed system that receives energy from outside sources. The organisms making up the ecosystem transform this energy into useful forms for storage and later utilization. Students study photosynthesis as a transformation process producing glucose (food), which may then be accessed as an energy source for the organism. The second law of thermodynamics states that some energy is lost as “useless” energy, also known as entropy. Therefore, energy enters the system; is converted to food, which is stored by the organism; energy is used in normal metabolic processes; and energy is dissipated to the atmosphere during the normal living processes of the organism.

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