CMA-Course Overview • Unit-I • Significance of CMA, objectives, functions, organization principles, types …… • Unit-II • Construction planning, bar charts, CPM, PERT, network problems…. • Unit-III • Cost time analysis, schedule compressing,……. • Unit-IV • Contracts, safety in construction, labor act, compensation act …. • Unit-V • Optimisation through LP, need for LP, graphical method, simplex method…. Reference books • Construction planning and management by PS Gahlot, BM Dhir • Operations Research by Taha H • Total Construction Project Management by George J Ritz • Project Management CPM, PERT, GERT and Linear Programming by J C Pant
Construction Management and Administration: Unit-I • Significance of Construction Management • Objectives of Construction Management • Functions of Construction Management • Construction Management team • Principles of organization • Types of organization
Significance of Construction Management • Under Developed to Developing country through major infra-projects such as multipurpose river valley projects, industrial development projects, NHDP projects, Irrigation Canal projects, Railway Projects, Port development projects etc., • On an average about 50% of the total expenditure of our 5year plans is invested in construction works • Construction is an everlasting activity across the globe • Every sector of our economy involves construction activities • Construction is a major economic activity in India (7% GDP) and playing important role in the development of the country
Significance of Construction Management • Construction industry Provides employment on large scale (31.5million manpower in 2005) • If construction project schedules are not maintained, the cost increases • Use of machine and equipments in construction industry increases the quality of construction • The art of construction has slowly developed as a science through ages. In our country, building construction in rural and semi-urban areas is more or less an art
Significance of Construction Management • India is still developing country (scope for construction) • The input of the labor, capital, machinery and raw materials can never become production without the catalyst of management • In order to ensure that the huge resources invested in the construction industry are deployed efficiently for the benefit of society it needs construction management professionals
What is Management? Act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources Efficiently and Effectively What is Construction Management? Construction management or construction project management (CPM) is the overall Planning, Coordination, and Control of a project from Inception to Completion aimed at meeting a client’s requirements in order to produce a functionally and financially viable project.
Best designed structure?? • One which would collapse at the applied loading such that this loading is safety factor times the loading that is expected on the structure and that when such a failure occurs ALL THE COMPONENTS OF THE STRUCTURE FAIL SIMULTANEOUSLY • Proper design, • Fabrication • Assembly of each component of structure
Objectives of Construction Management The main objectives of construction management are • Completing the work within estimated budget and specified time • Evolving a reputation for high quality workman ship • Providing safe and satisfactory working conditions for all personnel and workers • Taking sound decisions at the lowest practical management level through delegation of authority • Motivating people to give of their best within their capacities • Creating an organization that works as a team
Economy by the Engineer • By incorporating components/materials in the design which are locally available • By avoiding special equipments not available in the country • Using standard or similar sections (modular coordination techniques) • By giving full details/specs and eliminating wrong parts procurement • Having a trained and experienced supervisory staff • By providing all necessary documents to avoid delays
Functions of Construction Management The function of construction management are • Planning and scheduling • Organizing • Staffing • Directing • Controlling • Co-ordinating
Functions of Construction Management • Planning and scheduling Planning involves formulation of a number of alternative realistic work plan for achieving specified objectives and finally selecting a plan which is best suited from the stand-point of available resources and constraints imposed upon the project. It essentially covers the aspects of “what to do” and “how to do it”. Scheduling is the fitting of the final work plan to a time scale. It shows the duration and order of various construction activities. It deals with the aspect of “when to do it”.
Functions of Construction Management 2. Organizing Organizing is concerned with • Division of the total construction work into manageable departments/sections • Systematically arranging various operations by delegating specific tasks to individuals • The relationship between various personnel are established • The organizational structure of the project is depicted by a flow chart.
Functions of construction management 3. Staffing Organising involves the division of project work into sections and staffing is provision of people to fill the positions so created Staffing functions include • Recruiting the right people • Arranging staff training courses • Carryout proper staff assessment
Functions of construction management 4. Directing • The directing function is concerned with training subordinates to carryout assigned tasks, supervising their work and guiding their efforts. • The essence of directing lies in the ability to motivate people individually and as groups to utilize their creative efforts in achieving specified objectives
Functions of Construction Management 5. Controlling • Controlling is necessary for ensuring effective and efficient working • It involves a constant review of the work plan to check on actual achievements and to discover and rectify deviations through appropriate corrective measures. • The essentials in management control are • Actual performance measurement (Progress, quality, cost) • Comparison of actual and planned performance • Analysis of shortfall in performance, identification and implementation of suitable remedial measures • Quick and accurate flow of information is a vital aspect
Functions of Construction Management 6. Co-ordinating • Since authority converges to the top of the organizational pyramid, it is necessary to bring together and coordinate the work of various departments and sections • It requires an efficient system of communication so that each department and section is aware of its role and the assistance to be expected from others • Regular meetings of departmental heads with top management are fundamental to proper coordination • Plans, problems and remedies are discussed for determining best solution
Resources for Construction Industry • Materials • Aggregate, Cement, Bitumen, Steel ….. • Manpower • Unskilled, Skilled, Operators, Engineers, Managers …. • Machinery • Mixing plants, Transit mixers, cranes, boom placers, concrete pumps, rollers, pavers, graders……. • Funds • ADB, World Bank, State/Central Govt., PSUs, • Space • Govt. land /private land
Types of Construction • Light Construction • Buildings and light structures • Residential houses, shopping centers, schools, water tanks, culverts, small bridges • Heavy Construction • Heavy plant &Equipments used • Work scope will be large • Multi span bridges, tunnels, dams, barrages, highways, railways, airports, harbors • Industrial construction • Special technology, plant & equipment used • Chemical & fertilizer plants, steel plants, petroleum refineries, atomic /thermal power plants, automobile & Aircraft industry
Stages in Construction • Briefing stage • Designing/planning stage • Tendering stage • Construction stage • Commissioning stage
Construction team • Owner • Individual or group of individuals, private or public undertaking • Ultimate authority with major decision making power • Controls resources • Approves changes if any in scope/schedule • Eg. PWD, NHAI, Indian Army, • Engineers and Architects • Civil, mechanical, electrical, Architects, specialists/consultants • Design, Supervision, Project management consultants • Contractor • With a team of planning engineers, site engineers, surveyors, suppliers, subcontractors