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Ag Fact! 4/23

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  1. Ag Fact! 4/23

  2. Ag Fact! 4/23

  3. Livestock Judging 1.0Beef Cattle Sutherlin AST Adapted from University of Kentucky Judging PowerPoints and Georgia Ag Ed

  4. Basics of Livestock Judging • Evaluate market animals • Evaluate breeding animals • Do so based on industry wants

  5. Steps to Judging Beef 1. Evaluate cattle from the ground up and from the rump (rear) forward 2. Evaluate the most important traits first 3. Eliminate any easy placings in the class 4. Place the class based on the volume of the important traits

  6. Judging Market Steers Ranking Traits • Degree of muscling • Degree of finish (fat cover) • Growth capacity • Structure • Balance • Frame size

  7. Evaluate Muscling Muscling • Muscle is the product of meat animals • More muscle means a more valuable animal • Yield Grade • Lower Yield Grade = more product

  8. Evaluate Muscling Degree of muscling in steers is best determined by evaluating: • Thickness through the center of quarter • Width between rear feet when steer stands and(or) walks • Shape over the top (butterfly shape desired)

  9. Evaluate Muscling Thin Muscle Average Muscle Thick Muscle Super Thick Good width Very good width Very narrow width Average width

  10. Evaluate Finish Finish • Finish is the amount of fat on the animal • More finish means better tasting product • Marbling is intramuscular fat • Quality Grade • “Prime rib” • Animals finish front to back

  11. Evaluate Finish Areas to consider when evaluating degree of finish include: • Top line • Underline • Body depth • Brisket • Tailhead • Udder or cod • Shoulder • Over the ribs

  12. Evaluate Finish Smooth over top Fat tailhead Miss Fatty 950 lbs 0.8 inches backfat Choice 50 4.0 yield grade Udder fat Loose underline Full brisket

  13. Evaluate Finish Trim tailhead Clean over ribs Mister Muscle $ 1,250 lbs $ 0.2 inches backfat $ 1.6 yield grade $ Standard quality grade Empty brisket Indentation behind shoulder Tight, clean underline Shallow rear flank Empty cod

  14. Evaluate Finish Nice brisket Too trim Full brisket (near ideal) Empty brisket (lacks finish)

  15. Evaluate Growth Capacity Market steers with high growth capacity will be: • Wide through the chest • Wide between feet when walking or standing • Uniform in their body depth • Open through the ribs • Long bodied

  16. Evaluating Growth Capacity Good growth capacity Open rib shape Uniform body depth Wide chested Long bodied Wide walking

  17. Evaluate Soundness Sound and structurally correct animals will have: • Long, straight top line • Long, level rumps • Flexible, clean, flat joints • Long powerful stride • Good set to hocks and knees

  18. Evaluate Soundness Good set to hock Sound and structurally correct Good set to knee Strong pastern Strong pastern Big, square feet

  19. Evaluate Soundness Poor structure Short, steep rump Weak top Long, straight top line Good structure Long, level rump

  20. Evaluate Balance Balance refers to market steers having the correct portions of width, depth, and length • Width, depth, and length should be in equal proportions that blend together

  21. Evaluate Balance NO BALANCE ALERT ! Too short Too light in hindquarters Heavy fronted Too shallow in rear flank

  22. Evaluate Balance Clean necked Good fronted steer Smooth shoulder

  23. Evaluate Balance Well Balanced Steer All the parts (width, depth, and length) fit together nicely

  24. Evaluate Frame Size The optimum steer for today’s market should be medium framed and finish at about 1,200 lbs • Large framed steers will get too big before developing adequate finish • Small framed steers will be early maturing and get too fat before they reach optimum weight

  25. Evaluate Frame Size I=m too big 1,400 lb large framed steer with no finish

  26. Evaluate Frame Size I=m too small 900 lb small framed steer with too much fat

  27. Evaluate Frame Size 0.4 Backfat $ 13.5 in2 Ribeye $ Low choice quality grade $ 2.8 Yield grade I=m just right 1,250 lb medium framed steer with proper finish

  28. Example Market Steer Class I

  29. 2 1 3 4 Placings By Traits

  30. 2 1 3 4 Placings By Traits Official Placing: 2 - 4 - 3 - 1 Cuts: 3 - 5 - 6 Muscle: 2-4-3-1 Finish: 2-1-4-3 Capacity: 2-4-3-1 Structure: 4-3-2-1 Balance: 4-2-3-1 Frame: 2-4-1-3

  31. Example Market Steer Class II

  32. 1 2 4 3

  33. 1 2 4 3 Placings By Traits Official Placing: 4 - 1 - 2 - 3 Cuts: 4 - 3 - 6 Muscle: 2-4-1-3 Finish: 1-4-2-3 Capacity: 4-1-2-3 Structure: 4-1-2-3 Balance: 2-4-1-3

  34. Judging Beef Heifers • Soundness and structural correctness • Capacity or volume • Style and balance • Degree of muscling • Femininity

  35. Evaluate Soundness Soundness and Structural Correctness • More important in breeding animals than market animals • Breeding animals produce for longer and need to be able to walk/move years more than market animals

  36. Evaluate Soundness When evaluating structure and soundness, attention should be given to the following areas: • Feet • Pasterns • Hocks • Knees • Rump • Shoulder

  37. Evaluate Soundness- Feet - Poor depth of heel Feet turned out (not square) Hoof-skin junction too close to ground

  38. Evaluate Soundness- Feet - Excellent foot Good foot size that is square Good depth of heel Foot sits flatly on surface

  39. Evaluate Soundness- Pastern - Pastern too weak Pastern too straight

  40. Evaluate Soundness- Pastern - Excellent pasterns Flex with strength Nice set to pasterns

  41. Evaluate Soundness- Hocks - Too straight (post-legged) Sickle hocked Cow hocked

  42. Evaluate Soundness- Hocks - Excellent hocks Correct set to hocks (square, flat boned, powerful)

  43. Evaluate Soundness- Rump - Short and steep rumped from hooks to pins

  44. Evaluate Soundness- Rump - Excellent rump Long rumped and level from hooks to pins

  45. Evaluate Soundness- Shoulder - Too straight in shoulder Too coarse through shoulder

  46. Evaluate Soundness- Shoulder - Excellent shoulder Nice set and smoothness to shoulder

  47. Evaluate Capacity Capacity (volume) is determined by three factors: • Body width (rib shape) • Heifers should be wide bodied with good spring of rib • Depth of body • When viewed from the side, body depth should be at least 1/2 the distance from the top of the back to the ground • Length of body • Heifers should be long bodied

  48. Evaluate Capacity Snake Alert Short bodied Shallow rear flank Narrow bodied (no spring of rib)

  49. Evaluate Capacity Excellent, wide open rib shape Excellent, uniform body depth

  50. Evaluate Style and Balance Style and balance is related to how well all the pieces of the heifer fit together. Points to consider include: • Straightness of top line • Balance between body width, depth, and length • Smoothness and angularity of front • Blending of the shoulder, ribs, and hip