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CHAPTER 5. IT ARCHITECTURES. Chapter Five Overview. SECTION 5.1 - HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE BASICS Hardware Basics Computer Categories Software Basics SECTION 5.2 – MANAGING ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURES Enterprise Architectures Information Architecture Infrastructure Architecture

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chapter 5



chapter five overview
Chapter Five Overview
    • Hardware Basics
    • Computer Categories
    • Software Basics
    • Enterprise Architectures
    • Information Architecture
    • Infrastructure Architecture
    • Application Architecture
section 5 1



learning outcomes
  • Describe the six major categories of hardware and provide an example of each
  • Identify the different computer categories and explain their potential business uses
  • Explain the difference between primary and secondary storage
learning outcomes1
  • List the common input, output, storage, and communication devices
  • Describe the eight categories of computers by size
  • Define the relationship between operating system software and utility software
  • Information technology (IT) - any computer-based tool that people use to work with information and support the information and information-processing needs of an organization
    • Hardware - consists of the physical devices associated with a computer system
    • Software - the set of instructions that the hardware executes to carry out specific tasks
hardware basics
  • Computer -an electronic device operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory that can accept, manipulate, and store data
  • Hardware components include:
      • Central processing unit (CPU)
      • Primary storage
      • Secondary storage
      • Input device
      • Output device
      • Communication device
central processing unit
Central Processing Unit
  • Central processing unit (CPU) (or microprocessor) - the actual hardware that interprets and executes the program (software) instructions and coordinates how all the other hardware devices work together
  • Control unit -interprets software instructions and literally tells the other hardware devices what to do, based on the software instructions
  • Arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) -performs all arithmetic operations (for example, addition and subtraction) and all logic operations (such as sorting and comparing numbers)
central processing unit1
Central Processing Unit
  • The number of CPU cycles per second determines the speed of a CPU
    • Megahertz (MHz) - the number of millions of CPU cycles per second
    • Gigahertz (GHz) - the number of billions of CPU cycles per second
central processing unit2
Central Processing Unit
  • CPU speed factors
    • Clock speed
    • Word length
    • Bus width
    • Chip line width
  • Binarydigit (bit) -the smallest unit of information that a computer can process
  • Byte - a group of eight bits representing one natural language character
advances in cpu design
Advances in CPU Design
  • Complex instruction set computer (CISC) chip -type of CPU that can recognize as many as 100 or more instructions, enough to carry out most computations directly
  • Reduced instruction set computer (RISC) chip -limit the number of instructions the CPU can execute to increase processing speed
  • Virtualization - a protected memory space created by the CPU allowing the computer to create virtual machines
primary storage
Primary Storage
  • Primary storage - the computer’s main memory, which consists of the random access memory (RAM), cache memory, and the read-only memory (ROM) that is directly accessible to the CPU
random access memory ram
Random Access Memory (RAM)
  • Random access memory (RAM) - the computer’s primary working memory, in which program instructions and data are stored so that they can be accessed directly by the CPU via the processor’s high-speed external data bus
    • Volatility
    • Cache memory
read only memory rom
Read-Only Memory (ROM)
  • Read-only memory (ROM) -the portion of a computer’s primary storage that does not lose its contents when one switches off the power
    • Flash memory
    • Memory card
    • Memory stick
secondary storage
Secondary Storage
  • Secondary storage - consists of equipment designed to store large volumes of data for long-term storage
    • Megabyte (MB or M or Meg) - roughly 1 million bytes
    • Gigabyte (GB) -roughly 1 billion bytes
    • Terabyte (TB) - roughly 1 trillion bytes
magnetic medium
Magnetic Medium
  • Magnetic medium - a secondary storage medium that uses magnetic techniques to store and retrieve data on disks or tapes coated with magnetically sensitive materials
  • Magnetic tape -an older secondary storage medium that uses a strip of thin plastic coated with a magnetically sensitive recording medium
  • Hard drive -a secondary storage medium that uses several rigid disks coated with a magnetically sensitive material and housed together with the recording heads in a hermetically sealed mechanism
optical medium
Optical Medium
  • Optical medium types include:
    • Compact disk-read-only memory (CD-ROM)
    • Compact disk-read-write (CD-RW) drive
    • Digital video disk (DVD)
    • DVD-ROM drive
    • Digital video disk-read/write (DVD-RW)
input devices
Input Devices
  • Input device - equipment used to capture information and commands
    • Manual input devices
      • Joystick
      • Keyboard
      • Microphone
    • Automated input devices
      • Bar code scanner
      • Digital camera
      • Magnetic ink character reader
output devices
Output Devices
  • Output device -equipment used to see, hear, or otherwise accept the results of information processing requests
    • Cathode-ray tube (CRT)
    • Liquid crystal display (LCD)
    • Laser printer
    • Ink-jet printer
    • Plotter
communication devices
Communication Devices
  • Communication device -equipment used to send information and receive it from one location to another
    • Dial-up access
    • Cable
    • Digital subscriber line
    • Wireless
    • Satellite
computer categories
  • For the past 20 years, federally funded supercomputing research has given birth to some of the computer industry’s most significant technology breakthroughs including:
    • Clustering
    • Parallel processing
    • Mosaic browser
computer categories1
  • Computer categories include:
    • Personal digital assistant (PDA)
    • Laptop
    • Tablet
    • Desktop
    • Workstation
    • Minicomputer
    • Mainframe computer
    • Supercomputer
software basics
  • System software -controls how the various technology tools work together along with the application software
    • Operating system software
    • Utility software
    • Application software
utility software
Utility Software
  • Types of utility software
    • Crash-proof
    • Disk image
    • Disk optimization
    • Encrypt data
    • File and data recovery
    • Text protect
    • Preventative security
    • Spyware
    • Uninstaller
application software
Application Software
  • Types of application software
    • Bowser
    • Communication
    • Data management
    • Desktop publishing
    • E-mail
    • Groupware
    • Presentation graphics
    • Programming
    • Spreadsheet
    • Word processing
opening case questions electronic breaking points
OPENING CASE QUESTIONSElectronic Breaking Points
  • Identify six hardware categories and place each product listed in the case in its appropriate category
  • Describe the CPU and identify which products would use a CPU
  • Describe the relationship between memory sticks and laptops. How can a user employ one to help protect information loss from the other?
  • What different types of software might each of the products listed in the case use?
section 5 2


Enterprise Architecture

learning outcomes2
  • Explain the three components of an enterprise architecture
  • Describe how an organization can implement a solid information architecture
  • List and describe the five ilities of an infrastructure architecture
  • Compare Web services and open systems
enterprise architectures
  • Enterprise architecture - includes the plans for how an organization will build, deploy, use, and share its data, processes, and IT assets
  • Enterprise architect (EA) -a person grounded in technology, fluent in business, a patient diplomat, and provides the important bridge between IT and the business
enterprise architectures1
  • Primary goals of enterprise architectures
backup and recovery
Backup and Recovery
  • Backup -an exact copy of a system’s information
  • Recovery - the ability to get a system up and running in the event of a system crash or failure and includes restoring the information backup
    • Fault tolerance
    • Failover
disaster recovery
Disaster Recovery
  • Disaster recovery best practices include:
    • Mind the enterprise architectures
    • Monitor the quality of computer networks that provide data on power suppliers and demand
    • Make sure the networks can be restored quickly in the case of downtime
    • Set up disaster recovery plans
    • Provide adequate staff training, including verbal communication protocols “so that operators are aware of any IT-related problems
disaster recovery1
Disaster Recovery

Financial Institutions Worldwide Spending on Disaster Recovery

disaster recovery2
Disaster Recovery
  • Disaster recovery plan -a detailed process for recovering information or an IT system in the event of a catastrophic disaster such as a fire or flood
  • Disaster recovery cost curve - charts (1) the cost to the organization of the unavailability of information and technology and (2) the cost to the organization of recovering from a disaster over time
    • Hot site
    • Cold site
information security
Information Security
  • A good information architecture includes:
    • A strong information security plan
    • Managing user access
    • Up-to-date antivirus software and patches
infrastructure architecture1
  • Five primary characteristics of a solid infrastructure architecture:
    • Flexibility
    • Scalability
    • Reliability
    • Availability
    • Performance
application architecture
  • Application architecture - determines how applications integrate and relate to each other
web services
Web Services
  • Web service -contains a repertoire of Web-based data and procedural resources that use shared protocols and standards permitting different applications to share data and services
  • Interoperability - the capability of two or more computer systems to share data and resources, even though they are made by different manufacturers
web services1
Web Services
  • Event -detect threats and opportunities and alert those who can act on the information
  • Service - more like software products than they are coding projects, and must appeal to a broad audience, and they need to be reusable if they are going to have an impact on productivity
open systems
Open Systems
  • Open system -a broad, general term that describes nonproprietary IT hardware and software made available by the standards and procedures by which their products work, making it easier to integrate them
    • Allow systems to seamlessly share information
    • Capitalize on enterprise architectures
    • Eliminate proprietary systems and promote competitive pricing
opening case questions electronic breaking points1
OPENING CASE QUESTIONSElectronic Breaking Points
  • How can an organization use an information architecture to protect its IT investment in electronic devices outlined in the case?
  • How can an organization use the devices mentioned in the case to protect information security?
  • Identify the five ilites and rank them in order of importance for a laptop (1 highest, 5 lowest)
  • Describe how a “Customer Phone Number” Web service could be used by one of the products outlined in the case
closing case one chicago tribune
  • Review the five characteristics of infrastructure architecture and rank them in order of their potential impact on the Tribune Co.’s business
  • What is the disaster recovery cost curve? Where should the Tribune Co. operate on the curve?
  • Define backups and recovery. What are the risks to the Tribune’s business if it fails to implement an adequate backup plan?
closing case one chicago tribune1
  • Why is a scalable and highly available enterprise architecture critical to the Tribune Co.’s current operations and future growth?
  • Identify the need for information security at the Tribune Co.
  • How could the Tribune Co. use a classified ad Web service across its different businesses?
closing case two ups in the computer repair business
CLOSING CASE TWOUPS in the Computer Repair Business
  • Do you think UPS’s entrance into the laptop repair business was a good business decision? Why or why not?
  • Identify the different types of hardware UPS technicians might be working on when fixing laptops
  • Assume you are a technician working at UPS. Explain to a customer the different types of memory and why only certain types of data are lost during a computer failure. Also identify a potential backup strategy you can suggest to the customer
  • Assume you are a technician working at UPS. Explain to a customer the different types of software found in a typical laptop
closing case three fear the penguin
  • How does Linux differ from traditional software?
  • Should Microsoft consider Linux a threat? Why or why not?
  • How is open source software a potential trend shaping organizations?
closing case three fear the penguin1
  • How can you use Linux as an emerging technology to gain a competitive advantage?
  • Research the Internet and discover potential ways that Linux might revolutionize business in the future