Plants - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Plants

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  1. Plants Are all plants the same?

  2. All plants share some common characteristics • All plants are photosynthetic autotrophs. • In order to photosynthesize, plants use special cell structures called chloroplasts.

  3. All plants share some common characteristics • Chloroplasts are filled with a pigment called chlorophyll that transfers light energy into chemical energy. • The plant then uses the energy to make sugars, which store the energy for later use in respiration.

  4. Fill It In … Sketch of a chloroplast: Chlorophyll __________ green light and __________ all other wavelengths.

  5. All plants share some common characteristics • All plants are multicellular. • Plants are made of eukaryotic cells with cell walls surrounding the cell membrane for protection against cell lysis, large vacuoles near the center of the cell to store water, and chloroplasts in specialized cells within the plant body.

  6. All plants share some common characteristics • Plants are common producers in ecosystems, forming the base of all terrestrial food webs.

  7. Plants are divided into groupsbased on differing characteristics • The first main division of plants is based on the presence of vascular tissue. • Vascular tissueconsists of specialized cells joined into tubes that aid the plant n moving water and nutrients throughout the plant body.

  8. Plants are divided into groups based on differing characteristics • Nonvascular plants lack vascular tissue • Vascular plants have two basic types of vascular tissue: • xylem (which carries water) • phloem (which carries nutrients)

  9. Plants are divided into groups based on differing characteristics • Vascular plants can be further divided based on the means of reproduction: • Seedless vascular plants reproduce using spores (ex. Fern)

  10. Plants are divided into groups based on differing characteristics • Gymnosperms are vascular plants which store seeds in cones (ex. spruce)

  11. Plants are divided into groups based on differing characteristics • Angiosperms are vascular plants which store seeds in fruits which develop from flowers (ex. daisy) • ANGIE LIKES FLOWERS

  12. Fill It In … Outline of plant types: I. II. A. B. 1. 2.

  13. Check Yourself! • Name three characteristics shared by all plants. • What are the two main divisions of plants? • How are vascular plants further divided? • What is an angiosperm?

  14. Check Yourself! • Name three characteristics shared by all plants. PHOTOSYNTHETIC AUTOTROPHS, MULTICELLULAR, PRODUCERS • What are the two main divisions of plants? • How are vascular plants further divided? • What is an angiosperm?

  15. Check Yourself! • Name three characteristics shared by all plants. PHOTOSYNTHETIC AUTOTROPHS, MULTICELLULAR, PRODUCERS • What are the two main divisions of plants? NONVASCULAR & VASCULAR • How are vascular plants further divided? • What is an angiosperm?

  16. Check Yourself! • Name three characteristics shared by all plants. PHOTOSYNTHETIC AUTOTROPHS, MULTICELLULAR, PRODUCERS • What are the two main divisions of plants? NONVASCULAR & VASCULAR • How are vascular plants further divided? SPORE-PRODUCING & SEED-PRODUCING • What is an angiosperm?

  17. Check Yourself! • Name three characteristics shared by all plants. PHOTOSYNTHETIC AUTOTROPHS, MULTICELLULAR, PRODUCERS • What are the two main divisions of plants? NONVASCULAR & VASCULAR • How are vascular plants further divided? SPORE-PRODUCING & SEED-PRODUCING • What is an angiosperm? STORE SEEDS IN FRUIT WHICH DEVELOP FROM FLOWERS

  18. Are plants alive? • Transport describes how plants get what they need to the cells and remove wastes from the cells

  19. Are plants alive? • Non-vascular plants depend on osmosis to take in water and diffusion to move other important substances (sugars) to the cells. • Therefore, the plant must be small and grow in mats which have a spongy quality which help to absorb and retain water.

  20. Are plants alive? • Vascular plants have a system of tubes and vessels which allow them to transport water and nutrients throughout the plant body. • Therefore, the plant can grow much taller

  21. Are plants alive? • Xylemis the vascular tissue that transports water from the roots to the rest of the plant body

  22. Are plants alive? • Phloem is the vascular tissue that transports nutrients (sugars produced through photosynthesis) from the photosynthetic structures (ex. leaves) to the rest of the plant body.

  23. Fill It In … Sketch a tree in the space below. Draw and label 2 arrows - one showing xylem and the flow of water, one showing phloem and the flow of food.

  24. Are plants alive? • Respiration describes the process by which plants (and all other cells) transform the stored energy of sugars into the quick energy of ATP.

  25. Are plants alive? • In order to respire, plants need to obtain oxygen (from environment and/or photosynthesis) and sugars (from photosynthesis). ATP

  26. Are plants alive? • Excretion describes how the plant rids itself of wastes.

  27. Are plants alive? • Non-vascular and vascular plants get rid of gaseous waste by diffusion.

  28. Are plants alive? • Vascular plants, however, have special microscopic openings on the surface of the leaves through which the diffusion takes place. • These openings are called stomata and are formed by two adjacent guard cells.

  29. Fill It In … Picture of stoma and guard cells, showing diffusion of O2 and CO2

  30. Are plants alive? • Plants can also store waste in the vacuole or in organs which are destined to fall off or die (ex. leaves in the autumn). • Some plants excrete waste products into the soil, occasionally using the wastes as chemical weapons against other competing plants.

  31. Check Yourself! • How do non-vascular plants transport water? • What vascular tissue transports water? • What do plants need in order to respire? • From where do plants get oxygen for cellular respiration? • What are stomata?

  32. Check Yourself! • How do non-vascular plants transport water? OSMOSIS • What vascular tissue transports water? • What do plants need in order to respire? • From where do plants get oxygen for cellular respiration? • What are stomata?

  33. Check Yourself! • How do non-vascular plants transport water? OSMOSIS • What vascular tissue transports water? XYLEM • What do plants need in order to respire? • From where do plants get oxygen for cellular respiration? • What are stomata?

  34. Check Yourself! • How do non-vascular plants transport water? OSMOSIS • What vascular tissue transports water? XYLEM • What do plants need in order to respire? OXYGEN & SUGARS • From where do plants get oxygen for cellular respiration? • What are stomata?

  35. Check Yourself! • How do non-vascular plants transport water? OSMOSIS • What vascular tissue transports water? XYLEM • What do plants need in order to respire? OXYGEN & SUGARS • From where do plants get oxygen for cellular respiration? ENVIRONMENT AND/OR PHOTOSYNTHESIS • What are stomata?

  36. Check Yourself! • How do non-vascular plants transport water? OSMOSIS • What vascular tissue transports water? XYLEM • What do plants need in order to respire? OXYGEN & SUGARS • From where do plants get oxygen for cellular respiration? ENVIRONMENT AND/OR PHOTOSYNTHESIS • What are stomata? OPENINGS ON THE SURFACE OF LEAVES

  37. Are plants alive? • Synthesis describes how organisms build necessary molecules. • Plants produce sugars through photosynthesis which requires gas exchange through the stomata. • Plant cells must also produce essential cell molecules such as phospholipids for membranes and proteins for enzymes.

  38. Are plants alive? • Nutrition describes how organisms break down food. • The sugar produced in photosynthesis may be stored or moved throughout the plant to be broken down and used during cellular respiration.

  39. Are plants alive? • Regulation describes how organisms control body processes. • Plants produce hormones which regulate their growth and development and may control responses to stimuli.

  40. Are plants alive? • Auxins are hormones that allow for elongation of the cell. • This increased flexibility allows the plant to bend.

  41. Are plants alive? • Cytokinens are hormones that promote rapid cell division. • These hormones are found in rapidly growing regions of the plant such as the apical meristems (plant tissue in root tips and buds of shoots tht supply cells for the plant to grow in length).

  42. Are plants alive? • Ethylene is a hormone that promotes fruit ripening. • Because ethylene is a gas, it can affect nearby fruit.

  43. Fill It In …

  44. Are plants alive? • Plant tropisms are plant growth responses to external stimuli. • These responses are made possible by hormones such as auxin.

  45. Are plants alive? • Phototropism describes a plant’s response to light. • Ex. Leaves and stems grow toward the light to help with photosynthesis

  46. Are plants alive? • Gravitropism/ geotropism describes a plant’s response to gravity. • Ex. Roots grow toward the force of gravity but stems grow against the force of gravity.

  47. Are plants alive? • Thigmotropism is a response to constant contact. • Ex. Vines wrap around an object, such as a mailbox.

  48. Fill It In …

  49. Check Yourself! • Give two examples of important substances plants need to synthesize. • How does a plant use the sugar produced in photosynthesis? • What regulates the growth and development of plants? • What term describes a plant’s response to constant contact?

  50. Check Yourself! • Give two examples of important substances plants need to synthesize. SUGAR, PHOSPHOLIPIDS, OR PROTEINS • How does a plant use the sugar produced in photosynthesis? • What regulates the growth and development of plants? • What term describes a plant’s response to constant contact?